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L. Kauskale, I. Geipele, N. Zeltins and I. Lecis

.08.109 4. Azar, E., Nikolopoulou, C., and Papadopoulos, S. (2016). Integrating and optimizing metrics of sustainable building performance using human-focused agent-based modelling. Applied Energy, 183, 926–937. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.09.022 5. Balaban, O., and Oliveira, J. A. P. (2016). Sustainable buildings for healthier cities: Assessing the co-benefits of green buildings in Japan. Journal of Cleaner Production. Article in Press, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.01.086 6. Calderón, C., James, Urquizo, J., and

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L. Kauskale, I. Geipele, N. Zeltins and J. Vanags

. Kauškale, L., & Riemenschneider, F. (2016). The environmental and economic substantiation of investments in green buildings. Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management, 4 , 126–144. Doi:10.1515/bjreecm-2016-0010 7. Lance, C.E., Lance, C.E., & Robert, J. (2010). Vandenberg. Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Doctrine, verity and fable in organizational and social sciences. London: Routledge. 8. Ņevoļskis , S., & Vanags, J. (2011). Sustainable apartment building potentialities in Latvia. Building

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J. Abolins and J. Gravitis

Sustainable Supply of Energy from Biomass

The study concerns sustainable supply of primary energy from biomass and considers the interrelation between the amount of energy captured in biomass by photosynthesis and the total land area under perennial species grown for the purpose. The authors analyse available experimental data statistically relevant to natural growths comprising a large number of individual trees of grey alder (Alnus incana), a well-known fast-growing species broadly spread in Latvia and for centuries being used as firewood. By graphical approximation of the growth-rate data available for growths up to 50 years of age the optimum age for harvesting dependent on the age at which the maximum growth-rate of biomass is reached is shown to be 18 years confirming traditional popular knowledge. With account for long-term sustainable supply of energy under condition of 18-year rotation, the average yield of energy from highest quality sites of the total land area permanently occupied by alder is calculated to be ca. 85 GJ/ha and the required land equivalent - slightly less than 12 ha per TJ of primary energy from photosynthesis.

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Chen Wang, Faizul Azli Mohd Rahim, Nurul Safwah Mohd Yusoff, Hamzah Abdul Rahman and Vili How

), “Energy and policy providing for sustainable rural livelihoods in remote locations - the case of Cuba”, Geoforum 40, 645-654. [7] Crisp, J., and Elliott, B. (2005), Introduction to fiber optics. Optic Fiber and Light - A Brilliant Combination (3rd ed.), Elsevier. [8] Edwards, L. and Torcellini, P. (2002), “A Literature Review of the Effects of Natural Light on Building Occupants”, Technical Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-550-30769. [9] Egan, M. D. and Klas, R. H. (1983), Concepts in architectural

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L. Kauskale, I. Geipele, N. Zeltins and I. Lecis

REFERENCES 1. Chen, P.-H., Ong, C.-F., & Hsu, S.-C. (2016). Understanding the relationships between environmental management practices and financial performances of multinational construction firms. Journal of Cleaner Production, 139 , 750–760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.08.109 2. Kauškale, L., & Geipele, I. (2016). Economic and social sustainability of real estate market and problems of economic development – a historical overview. Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management, 4 (1), 2255–9671. DOI: 10

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J. Abolins and J. Gravitis

). Intrinsic units in growth modelling. Ecological Modelling 175 , 249–259. 15. Latvijas Valsts mežzinātnes institūts “Silava”. Available at http://www.silava.lv/23/section.aspx/View/119 . 16. Schulze, E.-D., Körner, C., Law, B.E., Haberl, H., and Luyssaert, S. (2012) Large-scale bioenergy from additional harvest of forest biomass is neither sustainable nor green-house gas neutral. GCB Bioenergy , 4 (6), 611–616.

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E. Pudzis, A. Adlers, I. Pukite, S. Geipele and N. Zeltins

Plan for the Development of Science, Technology and Innovation Guidelines 2014–2020. Retrieved from http://tap.mk.gov.lv/lv/mk/tap/?pid=40334802&mode=mk&date=2014-10-21 4. Audretsch, D. B., Keilbach, M.C., & Lehmann, E.E. (2006). Entrepreneurship and economic growth . Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183511.001.0001 5. Europion Comission. (2017). Towards an implementation strategy for the sustainable for the Baltic sea region . Retrieved from https

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A. Mutule, J. Teremranova and N. Antoskovs

REFERENCES 1. UN, Department of Economic & Social Affairs, Population Division. (2014). World urbanization prospects . The 2014 Revision. 2. Serbanica, C., & Constantin, D.-L. (2017). Sustainable cities in central and eastern European countries. Moving towards smart specialization.. Habitat International , 68 , 55–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2017.03.005 3. Yeh, H. (2017). The effects of successful ICT-based smart city services: From citizens' perspectives. Government Information Quarterly , 34 (3), 556–565. https://doi.org/10

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J. Abolins, J. Gravitis and J. Kosmacha

References Gravitis, J., & Abolins, J. (2010). Sustainable supply of energy from biomass. Latv. J. Phys. Tec. Sci., 47 (1), 57-63. Daugavietis, M. (2006). Rate of grey alder growth. Grey Alder in Latvia , Silava, 90-96 (in Latvian). Daugavietis, M., Bisenieks, J., & Daugaviete, M. (2009). The interconnections of valuation characteristics of grey alder stands. Substantiation of Deciduous Trees Cultivation and Rational Utilisation, New Products and Technologies , Latvian State

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J. Abolins and J. Gravitis

References Richardson, K., Dahl-Jensen, D., Elmeskov, J., Hagem, C., Henningsen, J., Korst-gård, J., Buus Kristensen, N., Morthorst, P., Olesen, J., Wier, M., Nielsen, M., & Karlsson, K. (2011). Denmark's Road Map for Fossil Fuel Independence. Solutions, 2 (4), http://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/node/954 http://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/node/954 Stupak, I., Lattimore, B., Titus, B. D., & Smith, C.T. (2011). Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest fuel production and harvesting: a review of