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Jan Obłój and Katarzyna Abramczuk

Abstract

This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

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Aleksandra Matulewska

polskim prawie prywatnym’, Przegląd Prawa i Administracji 102: 185–208. Mańko, R. 2015b. ‘Legal Survivals: A Conceptual Tool for Analysing PostTrans-formation Continuity of Legal Culture’ in: J. Rozenfelds (ed.) Tiesību efektivitāte postmodernā sabiedrībā : 16–27. Riga: Latvia University Press. Mańko, R. 2015c. ‘Reality is for Those Who Cannot Sustain the Dream: Fantasies of Selfhood in Legal Texts’, Wrocław Review of Law, Administration & Economics 5.1: 24–47. Mańko, R. 2016a. Wybrane relikty prawne epoki socjalizmu realnego w polskim prawie

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Aleksander J. Owczarek, Mike Smertka, Przemysław Jędrusik, Anita Gębska-Kuczerowska, Jerzy Chudek and Romuald Wojnicz

). Comparison of linear discriminant analysis methods for the classification of cancer based on gene expression data. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research , 28 (1), 149–156. Hughes, M. C. (2009). Using clinical decision support to improve health and achieve cost savings (Anvita Health Report). Retrieved from http://anvitahealth.com/...pdf/AnvitaHealth20Report-CDSROI.pdf Jankowski, S., Szymański, Z., Piątkowska-Janko, E., & Oreziak, A. (2007). Improved recognition of sustained ventricular tachycardia from SAECG by support vector machine. The

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Dimitris A. Galanakis

Abstract

Pelczar and Rainsbury advance a theory of proper names which purports, inter alia, to implement Kripke’s causal theory of name reference in order to explain reference change. The key tool for accomplishing this is the notion of a dubbing-in-force. In this paper I aim to show that this special appeal to dubbings does not sustain any real advance over Kripke’s account at least with respect to the problem of inadvertent referential shift. I argue that this theory has not offered any theory of reference transmission, which I take as a precondition for explaining the problem of reference change, and that the notion of a dubbing-in-force is unnecessary for name reference.

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Andrea Roselli

Abstract

What is the Specious Present? Which is its duration? And why, ultimately, do we need it to figure in our phenomenological account of temporal perception? In this paper, after introducing the role of the Specious Present in the main models that account for our phenomenological present, and after considering the deflationary objection by Dennett (that the debate relies on the fallacy of the Cartesian Theatre of Mind, the idea that it is meaningful to ask where and when an experience becomes conscious), I claim—thanks to a spatial analogy—that there could be a good criterion to distinguish between a present experience and a past experience, that there are good reasons to sustain the Specious Present (while snapshots are in no sense part of our phenomenological life), and that there could be a precise way to define the nature—and to measure the duration—of the Specious Present; as I will clarify, our capability and possibility to act and react are central in this perspective. If we accept this change of perspective, there is a definite sense in which the Specious Present is part of our temporal phenomenology.

Open access

Víctor M. Verdejo

sustained. Philosophical Studies 51: 187-211. Frege, Gottlob. 1980. Philosophical and Mathematical Correspondence. Edited by Gottfried Gabriel, Hans Hermes, Friedrich Kambartel, Christian Thiel, Albert Veraart and Brian McGuinness and translated by Hans Kaal. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Goldstein, Laurence. 2009. Pierre and circumspection in belief-formation. Analysis 69: 653-55. Heck, Richard. 1995. The sense of communication. Mind 104: 79-106. Kripke, Saul. 1979. A puzzle about belief. In Meaning and Use , ed. by Avishai Margalit, 239

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Jeremy David Bendik-Keymer

. New York: Oxford University Press. SHIVA, V. (2005): Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and Peace . Boston: South End Press. SHUE, H. (2010): Deadly Delays, Saving Opportunities: Creating a More Deadly World? In: S. Gardiner, S. Caney, D. Jamieson & H. Shue (eds.): Climate Ethics: Essential Readings . New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 146–162. SINGER, P. (2004): One World: The Ethics of Globalization . New Haven: Yale University Press. SINNOT-ARMSTRONG, W. (2010): It’s Not My Fault: Global Warming and Individual Moral

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Ireneusz Ziemiński

Abstract

The article is a critical commentary on Peter Singer’s thesis that the brain death definition should be replaced by a rule outlining the conditions permitting organ harvesting from patients who are biologically alive but are no longer persons. Largely agreeing with the position, I believe it can be justified not only on the basis of utilitarian arguments, but also those based on Kantian ethics and Christianity. However, due to the lack of reliable methods diagnosing complete and irreversible loss of consciousness, we should refrain from implementing upper brain death into medical practice. Organs also should not be harvested from people in a persistent vegetative state or from anencephalic children, for similar reasons. At the same time, patients who suffered from whole-brain death should not be artificially sustained; in light of current knowledge they can be declared dead and become organ donors.

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Archbishop Thabo Makgoba

Abstract

This paper considers hope and environment from a majority world perspective. It begins by surveying moves within the Anglican Church to become more environmentally aware, and to integrate environmental concerns into theology and practice. This process began at the Lambeth Conference in 1968 and eventually led to the inclusion of an environmental strand within the Anglican Communion’s ‘Five Marks of Mission’. The fifth Mark is ‘To strive to safeguard the integrity of creation and sustain and renew the life of the earth.’ In the 2008 Lambeth Conference a whole section was devoted to the environment. There follow accounts of environmental work in the Province of Southern Africa. In Niassa Diocese, in northern Mozambique, the mission department has been using Umoja (from the Swahili word for having a common mind) in congregational and community development. It demonstrates holistic mission by deepening faith, building community, and helping with practical challenges. Now the bigger question facing Southern Africa and the majority world is climate change. In South Africa apartheid used to dominate everything and this led to unity in the Church, but after apartheid the country is not faced by one overarching problem, but many. The theology of Charles Mathewes is explored in an attempt to find an adequate Christian response and bring hope to this new context. This then leads on to action in both small practical ways, and in bringing about more fundamental change. Finally, we are reminded that we should not always speak about problems, but also to present a positive vision.