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Tobias Danner and Harald Justnes

REFERENCES 1. Hasanbeigi A, Menke C & Price L, “The CO 2 abatement cost curve for the Thailand cement industry,” Journal of Cleaner Production , Vol. 15, 2010, pp. 1509-1518. 2. Benhelal E: “Global strategies and potentials to curb CO 2 emissions in cement industry,” Journal of Cleaner Production , Vol 51, 2013, pp. 142-161. 3. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCS): “Cement Industry Energy and CO 2 Performance - Getting the numbers right,” 2011, Geneva, Switzerland. 4. Bosoaga A, Masek O &OakeyJ E: “CO2 Capture

Open access

Otto During, Silu Bhochhibhoya, Ramesh Kumar Maskey and Rajendra Joshi

REFERENCES 1. Andrew R M: “Global CO 2 Emissions from Cement Production,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data , Oslo, Norway, No. 10, 2017, 195-217, 2017. 2. Herzog T and Billings B: “Navigating the Numbers,” World Resource Institute, 2005. 3. Schneider M, Romer M, Tschudin M, and Bolio H, “Sustainable Cement Production - Present and Future,” Cem. Concr. Res ., Vol. 41, No. 7, 2011, pp. 642–650. 4. Wray P, “Straight Talk with Karen Scrivener on Cements, CO 2 and Sustainable Development,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull ., Vol. 91, June-July 2012, pp. 47

Open access

Nadia Al-Ayish, Otto During, Katarina Malaga, Nelson Silva and Kjartan Gudmundsson

Sustainability Potential of Concrete and Concrete Structures Considering their Environmental Impact, Performance and Lifetime,” Construction and Building Materials , Vol. 67, 2014, pp 321-337. 4. Racutanu G: The Real Service Life of Swedish Road Bridges - A Case Study, Doctoral thesis. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2001. 5. Mattsson HÅ: “Integrated Bridge Maintenance - Evaluation of a pilot project and future perspectives,” Doctoral thesis . KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, 2008. 6. Safi

Open access

Jukka Lahdensivu, Pirkko Kekäläinen and Alina Lahdensivu

,” Guidelines of the Finnish Transport Agency 26/2013, 142 p. (In Finnish). 36. Lahdensivu, J., Varjonen, S., Pakkala, T., Köliö, A., “Systematic condition assessment of concrete facades and balconies exposed to outdoor climate,” Journal of sustainable building technology & urban development, Vol. 4:3, 2013, pp. 199-209. 37. BS 4027, “Sulphate-resisting Portland Cement,” British Standards Institution, 1996. 38. DIN 1164-10, “Zement mit besonderen Eigenschaften,” German Standards, 2008. 39. NBN B 12-109, “Cement - Low alkali limited cement

Open access

Viktor Sebestyén, Viola Somogyi, Szandra Szőke and Anett Utasi

.: Review of combined approaches and multi-criteria analysis for corporate environmental evaluation, J. Clean. Prod. , 2013 39 , 355-371 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.07.058 [20] SDEWES Index [Online] www.sdewes.org/sdewes_index.php , Accessed: 23 rd October 2017. [21] Kılkış, Ş.: Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems index for Southeast European cities, J. Clean. Prod. , 2016 130 , 222-234 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.121 [22] Kılkış, Ş.: Composite index for benchmarking local energy systems of Mediterranean port cities

Open access

Н. Dyja, А.А. Тukibay and S.A. Mashekov

Abstract

To create a rational technology of cogging process and to determinate the optimal values of the angles of tilt and single reduction the stress-strain state (SSS) of the blank during cogging in the flat dies was analyzed. By using the finite element method and program MSC.SuperForge quantitative data are obtained and the basic patterns of distribution of SSS, the temperature during the simulation of tilting in flat dies with different angles of tilting and the amount of reduction were established. Sustainable experimental-industrial technology of forging of two-phase titanium alloys was developed and tested.

Open access

M. Joulazadeh and F. Joulazadeh

Slag; Value Added Steel Industry Byproducts

Slag is a non metallic co-product, produced in the iron (BF) and steelmaking (BOF and EAF) process. Slag has been commonly utilized on a broad scale ever since these processes were first taken into use. Besides economical benefits, environmental requirements will enhance the need for further product development work concerning the properties of slag in the future, in order to observe the principle of sustainable development. Today, one of the important indicators of sustainable steel industry is quantity of slag (production) and its utilization. This paper discuss the utilization of slag in different fields such as cement, heat and sound isolation, filtration, agriculture, tile and glass production and explain some of important researches in last 35 years which done in Esfahan Steel Co. (ESCo) of Iran.

Open access

P. Rokicki and K. Dychton

Abstract

Carburizing is one of the most popular and wide used thermo-chemical treatment methods of surface modification of tool steels. It is a process based on carbon diffusive enrichment of the surface material and is applied for elements that are supposed to present higher hardness and wear resistance sustaining core ductility. Typical elements submitted to carburizing process are gears, shafts, pins and bearing elements. In the last years, more and more popular, especially in highly advanced treatment procedures used in the aerospace industry is vacuum carburizing. It is a process based on chemical treatment of the surface in lower pressure, providing much higher uniformity of carburized layer, lower process cost and much lesser negative impact on environment to compare with conventional carburizing methods, as for example gas carburizing in Endo atmosphere. Unfortunately, aerospace industry requires much more detailed description of the phenomena linked to this process method and the literature background shows lack of tests that could confirm fulfilment of all needed requirements and to understand the process itself in much deeper meaning. In the presented paper, authors focused their research on acetylene flow impact on carburized layer characteristic. This is one of the most crucial parameters concerning homogeneity and uniformity of carburized layer properties. That is why, specific process methodology have been planned based on different acetylene flow values, and the surface layer of the steel gears have been investigated in meaning to impact on any possible change in potential properties of the final product.

Open access

E. Kolczyk, Z. Miczkowski and J. Czernecki

REFERENCES: [1] J. Czernecki, Z. Śmieszek, Z. Miczkowski, Erzmetall 65 , 2 (2012). [2] A. Valencia, R. Paredes, M. Rosales, E. Gdoy, J. Ortega, Int. Comm. On Heat Mass Transfer 31, 1 (2004). [3] A. Valencia, M. Rosales, R. Paredes, C. Loen, A. Moyano, Int. Comm. On Heat Mass Transfer 33 , 3 (2006). [4] A. Almaraz, C. Lopez, M. Meaza, G. Plascencia, Journal of Material Science and Engineering A 3 , 7 (2013). [5] Ch. Zschiesche, J. Schmidl, Non-Ferrous Metals for the Sustainable development in our World, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (2013

Open access

E. Kolczyk, Z. Miczkowski and J. Czernecki

. Rosales, E. Godoy, J. Ortega, Int. Comm. on Heat Mass Transfer 31, 21-30 (2004). [5] A. Almaraz, C. Lopez, M. Meaza, G. Plascencia, Journal of Material Science and Engineering A3 (7), 510-518 (2013). [6] Z. Cui, D. Shen, X. Wang, in: S. Eicke (Ed.), Non-Ferrous Metals for the Sustainable development in our World, GDMB-Verlag, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 2015. [7] Z. Cui, D. Shen, X. Wen, in: S. Eicke (Ed.), Non-Ferrous Metals for the Sustainable development in our World, GDMB-Verlag, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 2013. [8