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A. Zieliński, S. Sobieszczyk, T. Seramak, W. Serbiński, B. Świeczko-Żurek and A. Ossowska

Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of Load-Bearing Metallic Implants

The main objective of here presented research is to develop the titanium (Ti) alloy base composite materials possessing better biocompatibility, longer lifetime and bioactivity behaviour for load-bearing implants, e.g. hip joint and knee joint endoprosthesis. The development of such materials is performed through: modeling the material behaviour in biological environment in long time and developing of new procedures for such evaluation; obtaining of a Ti alloy with designed porosity; developing of an oxidation technology resulting in high corrosion resistance and bioactivity; developing of technologies for hydroxyapatite (HA) deposition aimed at composite bioactive coatings; developing of technologies of precipitation of the biodegradable core material placed within the pores.

The examinations of degradation of Ti implants are carried out in order to recognize the sources of both early allergies and inflammation, and of long term degradation. The theoretical assessment of corrosion is made assuming three processes: electrochemical dissolution through imperfections of the anodic oxide layer, diffusion of metallic ions through the oxide layer, and dissolution of oxides themselves.

In order to increase the biocompatibility, the toxic elements, aluminium (Al) and vanadium (V) are eliminated. The experiments have shown that titanium - zirconium - niobium (Ti-Zr-Nb) alloy may be a such a material which can also be prepared by both powder metallurgy (P/M) technique and selective laser melting. The porous (scaffold) Ti-Zr-Nb alloy is now obtained by powder metallurgy, classical and with space holders used before melting and decomposed, or remained during melting and removed by subsequent water dissolution. The oxidation of porous materials is performed either by electrochemical technique in special electrolytes or by chemical and/or hydrothermal method in order to obtain the optimal oxide layer well adjacent to an interface, preventing the base metal against corrosion and bioactive because of its nanotubular structure, permitting injection of some species into the pores. The Ca, O and N ion implantation or deposition of zirconia sublayers may be used to increase the biocompatibility, bioactivity and corrosion resistance. The HA coating obtained by either electrophoretic, biomimetic or by sol-gel deposition should result in gradient structure similar to bone structure, possessing high adhesion strength. The core material of the porous material should result in a biodegradable material, allowing slower dissolution followed by stepwise growth of bone tissue and angiogenesis, preventing local inflammation processes, sustaining the mechanical strength close to that of non-porous material.

Open access

E. Radziemska, T. Seramak and P. Ostrowski

References Wambach K., Schlenker S., Springer J., Konrad B., Sander K., Despotou E., Stryi-Hipp G., PV cycle - on the way to a sustainable and efficient closed loop system for photovoltaics, 22 nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy 2007. Müller A., Röver I., Wambach K., von Ramin-Marro D.W., Recovery of high value material of different photovoltaic technologies, 22 nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 3-7 September, Milan, Italy 2007. Röver I

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J. Shanafield, A. Otieno, R. Tatara, D. Schroeder and K. Rosentrater

References Mohanty A.K., Seydibeyoglu M.O., Misra M.: Wastes and undervalued coproducts from biofuel industries as raw materials for new industrial products: Greener pathway for a sustainable bioeconomy. SAMPE '09 Spring Symposium Conference Proceedings, Baltimore, Maryland, 2009. Rosentrater K.A., Otieno A.W.: Considerations for manufacturing bio-based plastic products. J. Polym. Environ. 14 (2006), 335-346. Tatara R.A., Rosentrater K.A., Suraparaju S.: Design properties for molded

Open access

Peter Dineff, Dilyana Gospodinova and Iva Avramov

flammability of treated wood. Meeting of working group COST Action E37: Sustainability through new technologies for enhanced wood durability, Hamburg, Germany, 08.÷09.11.2004. G. Troughton, and S. Chow. Migration of fatty acids to white spruce veneer surface during drying: Relevance to theories of inactivation. Wood Science, 1971, 3 (3): 129÷133; W. Hillis High temperature and chemical effects on wood stability. Wood Science and Technology, 1984, 18: 281÷293 Marra. Technology of wood bonding

Open access

M. Musztyfaga-Staszuk, A. Czupryński and M. Kciuk

. Czupryński A., Selected properties of the thermally sprayed oxide ceramic coatings, Advances in Materials Science, 15 (3) (2015) 17-32. 11. Pathak S., Saha G., Development of sustainable cold spray coatings and 3D additive manufacturing components for repair/manufacturing applications: a critical review. Coatings, 7 (8) (2017) 1-27. 12. Winnicki M., Małachowska A., Korzeniowski M., Jasiorski M., Baszczuk A., Aluminium to steel resistance spot welding with cold sprayed interlayer. Surface Engineering, 34(3) (2018) 235-242. 13. Chmielewski T., Siwek P

Open access

A. Kausar

of advanced composite membranes, J. Mater. Chem. A. 1 (2013) 10058-10077. 15. Kim S., Lee Y.M.: Rigid and microporous polymers for gas separation membranes, Prog. Polym. Sci. 43 (2015) 1-32. 16. Sanders D.F., Smith Z.P., Guo R., Robeson L.M., McGrath J.E., Paul D.R., Freeman B.D.: Energy-efficient polymeric gas separation membranes for a sustainable future: a review, Polymer. 54 (2013) 4729-4761. 17. Ali W., Kausar A., Iqbal T.: Reinforcement of high performance polystyrene/polyamide/polythiophene with multi-walled carbon nanotube obtained through

Open access

S. Sobieszczyk and R. Klotzke

sustained drug delivery in implantable devices, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Article in progress, doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2009.11.003 (2009). Zhang W., Li G., Li Y., Yu Z., Xi Z.: Fabrication of TiO 2 nanotube arrays on biologic titanium alloy and properties,. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 17, (2007) 692-695. Narayanan R., Kwon R-Y., Kim K-H.: TiO 2 nanotubes from stirred glycerol/NH 4 F electrolyte: Roughness, wetting behaviour and adhesion for implant applications, Materials Chemistry and Physics 117., (2009) 460

Open access

A. Stanisławska

. :Invention controls weavers of nanoscale biomaterials, Tech V. November 12 (2008) 19. Beck-Candanedo S., Roman M., Gray D. G.: Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Properties and Behavior of Wood Cellulose Nanocrystal Suspensions. Biomacromolecules. 6 (2005) 1048-1054. 20. Klemm D., Philipp B., Heinze T., Heinze U., Wagenknecht W.: Comprehensive Cellulose Chemistry Volume 1and 2. Wiley-VCH [ed]. Germany. (1998). 21. Klemm D., Heublein B., Fink H.P., Bohn A.: Cellulose: Fascinating Biopolymer and Sustainable Raw

Open access

M. H. Buszko and A. K. Krella

.: Assessment of resistance of non-metallic coatings to silt abrasion and cavitation erosion in a rotating disk test rig. Wear 194 (1996) 149-155. 33. Padhy M. K., Saini R. P.: Effect of size and concentration of silt particles on erosion of Pelton turbine buckets. Energy 34 (2009) 1477-1483. 34. Rai A. K., Kumar A., Staubli T.: Developing a Test Rig To Measure Hydro-Abrasive Erosion in Pelton Turbine. Int. Conf. Hydropower Sustain. Dev. 05-07 (2015) 535-547. 35. Oka Y. I., Mihara S., Yoshida T.: Impact-angle dependence and

Open access

T. Adinaveen, J. Judith Vijaya, R. Sivakumar and L. John Kennedy

1 Introduction Development of clean, green, renewable, and sustainable energy systems has gained much attention during the past decade due to the increase in the environmental pollution, and waste matter. It is mainly caused by the development of human activity that pose a continuously growing and serious problem. Since energy conversion and utilization are not necessarily concurrent events, efficient and durable energy storage is considered as important for the energy conversion from renewable sources [ 1 ]. Materials with purifying capability could be