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Rupal A. Vasant and A. V. R. L. Narasimhacharya

ABSTRACT

Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress

Open access

Tatyana Korolenko, Thomas P. Johnston, Nina I. Dubrovina, Yana A. Kisarova, Svetlana Ya. Zhanaeva, Marina S. Cherkanova, Elena E. Filjushina, Tatyana V. Alexeenko, Eva Machova and Natalya A. Zhukova

Abstract

Chronic administration of the poloxamer 407 (P-407), a block copolymer, to elevate serum lipids in mice is a well-established mouse model of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that the activity of several types of proteases in heart and liver tissue is changed in the early stages of atherosclerosis development. Additionally, we evaluated whether increased serum lipids would induce anxiety in mice, as determined by using a ‘plus-maze’ test. The mice were administered P-407 by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for one month. P-407 administration to mice resulted in a marked increase in total serum cholesterol, atherogenic non-HDLcholesterol, and especially in total triglycerides, and it also increased anxiety. Morphological changes observed in P-407-treated mice included contractile type changes in cardiomyocytes and foamy macrophages in liver. A significant increase of cysteine proteases cathepsin B and cathepsin L (at 24 h) and aspartate protease cathepsin D (at both 24 h and 5 days) was determined in heart tissue following P-407 administration. However, no changes were noted in heart matrix metalloproteinase activity. The activity of cysteine and aspartate proteases was significantly increased in liver at both 24 hours and 5 days after P-407 administration. In conclusion, administration of P-407 to mice for one month resulted in increased anxiety, and more importantly, there was an increase in the activity of heart and liver proteases secondary to sustained dyslipidemia. It is suggested that heart and liver cysteine and aspartate proteases may represent potential therapeutic targets in the early stages of atherosclerosis.

Open access

Henri Astroug, Roumiana Simeonova, Lilia Kassabova, Nikolay Danchev and Dobrin Svinarov

alternative for smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine dependence. Pharmacia   52 : 30-35. Gonzales D, Rennard S, Nides M, Oncken C, Azoulay S, Billing C, Watsky E, Gong J, Williams K and Reeves K. (2006). Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylocholine receptor partial agonist, vs. sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA   296 : 47-55. Imming P, Klaperski P, Stubbs M, Seitz G and Gündisch D. (2001). Syntheses and evaluation of halogenated cytisine

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Md. Aktar, Dwaipayan Sengupta, Swarnali Purkait, Madhumita Ganguly and M. Paramasivam

Biological Compensation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry   26 (6): 1214-1223. Balmas V, Maccaroni M, Santori A, Corazza L. (1999). Fusariosi della spiga di cereali autunno-vernini: indagine epidemiologica e valutazione della resistenza varietale di frumento duro nell'Italia centrale. Informatore Fitopatologico   49 (12): 37-42. Corazza L, Balmas V, Santori A, Vitale SL, Maccaroni M. (2001). Head blight and foot rot of wheat in Italy. In: Proceedings of the Conference ‘Sustainable Systems of Cereal Crop

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Hamideh Abnoos, Masoud Fereidoni, Naser Mahdavi-Shahri, Farhang Haddad and Razieh Jalal

activation of the JNK signaling pathway by mechanical stress. PLoS ONE 6 : e26182. Posser T, Franco JL, Bobrovskaya L, Leal RB, Dickson PW, Dunkley PR .(2009). Manganese induces sustained Ser40 phosphorylation and activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells. J Neurochem 110 : 848-856. Rand MD, Dao JC, Clason TA. (2009). Methylmercury disruption of embryonic neural development in Drosophila. Neurotoxicology 30 : 794-802. Sackton KL, Buehner NA, Wolfner MF. (2007). Modulation of MAPK activities during egg activation

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Rabindra N. Padhy, Nabakishore Nayak and Shakti Rath

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Katarína Wachalová, Jana Vlkovičová, Veronika Javorková, Lucia Mézešová, Peter Takáč, Milan Kozánek, Milan Labuda, Patricia Nuttall and Norbert Vrbjar

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Jacob K. Akintunde, Ganiyu Oboh and Akintunde A. Akindahunsi

-98. Nduka JKC, Orisakwe OE, Nwangunna CK. (2007). Heavy Metals other than Lead in fl aked paints from buildings in Eastern Nigeria. Toxicol Ind Health 23: 525-528. Nolan KR. (2003). Copper Toxicity Syndrome. J Orthomol Psych 12(4): 270-282. Ogwuegbu MO, Ijioma MA. (2003). Eff ects of certain Heavy Metals on the population due to Mineral Exploitation. In: International Conference on Scientifi c and Environmental Issues In The Population, Environmental and Sustainable Development in Nigeria, University of Ado Ekiti State, Nigerian, pp 8

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Karsta Luettich, Yang Xiang, Anita Iskandar, Alain Sewer, Florian Martin, Marja Talikka, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, An Berges, Emilija Veljkovic, Ignacio Gonzalez-Suarez, Walter Schlage, Walter Schlage, Julia Hoeng and Manuel Peitsch

targeting the serine/threonine kinase AKT2. Mol Cancer 9: 83. Galli G, Pittoni P, Tonti E, Malzone C, Uematsu Y, Tortoli M, Maione D, Volpini G, Finco O, Nuti S. (2007). Invariant NKT cells sustain specifi c B cell responses and memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 3984-3989. Gao W, Shen H, Liu L, Xu J, Xu J, Shu Y. (2011). MiR-21 overexpression in human primary squamous cell lung carcinoma is associated with poor patient prognosis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 137: 557-66. Gautier L, Cope L, Bolstad BM, Irizarry RA. (2004). aff y

Open access

Tamer Mahmoud Tamer

-44. Kim A, Checkla DM, Dehazya P, Chen WL. (2003). Characterization of DNAhyaluronan matrix for sustained gene transfer. J Control Release 90 : 81-95. Kirwan J. (2001). Is there a place for intra-articular hyaluronate in osteoarthritis of the knee? Knee 8 : 93-101. Knight AD, Levick JR. (1984). Morphometry of the ultrastructure of the bloodjoint barrier in the rabbit knee. Q J Exp Physiol 69 : 271-288. Kogan G. (2010). Hyaluronan - A High Molar mass messenger reporting on the status of synovial joints: part 1