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Ramon Pereira, Renata Osborne, Soraia Cabral and Carlos da Silva

and reflections on intervention/. Revista Movimento , 8, 102-112. Emerson, R. W. & Sauerburger, D. (2008). Detecting approaching vehicles at streets with no traffic control. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , 102, 747-760. Freitas, M. (2004). Desenvolvimento Sustentável /Sustainable Development/. Perspectiva , 22, 547-575. George, A. L. & Duquette, C. (2006). The Psychosocial Experiences of a Student with Low Vision. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , 100, 152

Open access

Renata Osborne

References 1. Marcinkowski T.J., Contemporary challenges and opportunities in Environmental Education: where are we headed and what deserves our attention? J Environ Educ, 2010, 41 (1), 34-54, doi: 10.1080/00958960903210015. 2. UNESCO. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014: Draft International Implementation Scheme. Available from: URL: http://portal. unesco.org/education/admin [accessed: May 11, 2005]. 3. Freitas M., Evolution of the sustainable development concept

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Dariusz Boguszewski, Monika (Cieślik), Jakub Adamczyk and Andrzej Ochal

długoterminowa nad niesprawnym seniorem [Long-term care of senior]. UAM Poznan. Tyszkowska, D. (2003). Aktywność fizyczna czynnikiem podtrzymującym zdrowie w procesie starzenia się [Physical Activity as a factor sustaining the health in elderly people]. MODN, Elk. Wrzesniewski, K., Sosnowski, T., & Matusik, D. (2002). Inwentarz stanu i cechy lęku STAI [Anxiety state and feature STAI Questionnaire]. Warszawa: PTP. [in Polish]. Zagura, F. I., & Lesko, O. M. (2010). Effect of exercises on system

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Elena Radicchi

Abstract

In recent years sport has become a phenomenon of large dimensions and it is an important resource for the development of a local context (Hautbois, Desbordes, 2008; Maier, Weber, 1993; Weed, Bull, 2004). The combination of physical and sports practices within a natural environment (outdoor) broadens the range of activities that people can choose in their free time (nordic walking, hiking, rediscovering rural districts, walking and cycling in urban spaces, etc.). The demand of this kind of activities is continuously evolving. Sports tourism is a new opportunity for the development of tourism offer. Cities, regions, rural areas, etc. through the exploitation of local resources, vocations and specializations can promote a destination in terms of reputation and tourism flows.

This research aims to stimulate a reflection on the role that the synergies between tourism and sport, combined with the use of resources, services and local products (cultural and artistic paths, local artefacts, wine tastings, etc.) may have for the development of a specific territory and its socio-economic environment.

Open access

Orphanos Yiannakis

.) Sport Tourism Destinations. Issues, Opportunities and Analysis. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann. Sharpley, R. (2003). Tourism, Modernisation and Development on the Island of Cyprus: Challenges and Policy Responses. Journal of Sustainable Tourism , Vol. 11, no 2&3. Standeven, J., Deknop, P. (1999). Sports Tourism. Human Kinetics. Zauhar, J. (2003). Historical Perspectives of Sport Tourism in Simon Hudson (Eds.) Sport and Adventure Tourism. Haworth Hospitality Press

Open access

Lili Kassay and Gábor Géczi

References BSCDH (The Business Council for Sustainable Development in Hungary) (2012). Ajánlás vezetőknek. A vállalati fenntarthatóság komplex értelmezése /Recommendation for business leaders. The complex interpretation of corporate sustainability/. Retrieved from: http://bcsdh.hu Chikán, A., Czakó, E. (2008). Versenyképesség - ahogyan a vállalatvezetők látják. Versenyképesség kutatás című műhelytanulmány sorozat /Competitiveness - as the companies' executives see Research working paper entiteled Competitiveness Series/, 49

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Oscar García-García, Virginia Serrano-Gómez, Antonio Hernández-Mendo and Verónica Morales-Sánchez

contraction produced by the electrical stimulus: maximum radial muscle belly displacement (Dm) in mm; contraction time (Tc) as the time in ms from 10 to 90% of Dm; delay time (Td) as the time in ms from the onset to 10% of Dm; time to sustain (Ts) as the time in ms between 50% of Dm on both the ascending and descending sides of the curve; half-relaxation time (Tr) as the time in ms between 90 and 50% of Dm on the descending curve; contraction velocity (Vc) as the rate (mm⋅s −1 ) between the radial displacement occurring during the time period of Tc (Dm80) and Tc [Dm80/Tc

Open access

Giulia Zucchetti, Filippo Candela, Emanuela Rabaglietti and Alessandra Marzari

Abstract

Using self-determination theory (SDT), this study simultaneously investigated the relationships between intrinsic motivation, psychological factors (sport enjoyment, social self-efficacy), and sociorelational factors (perceived coaching behaviors) by subsequently testing whether psychological factors mediate the relationships between social-relational factors and intrinsic motivation. One hundred and twentyseven early adolescent females from several teams of the Italian Volleyball Society completed a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that female athletes’ intrinsic motivation was associated with a) sport enjoyment and b) perceived coaching behaviors (e.g., training and instruction, social support). Second, results showed that training-and-instruction coaches’ leadership style affected intrinsic motivation via the females’ enjoyment in sport. This study provided further insights into unknown associations among psychological, sociorelational factors and intrinsic motivation, highlighting the innovative role of sport enjoyment as a key factor for sustaining intrinsic motivation. Original and useful behavioral suggestions will be given to the coaches in order to sustain female athletes’ sport enjoyment and their intrinsic motivation.

Open access

Niksa Djurovic, Mladen Hraste, Ljubica Stanisic, Mislav Lozovina, Vinko Lozovina and Leo Pavicic

A Unique Case of Supraspinatus Tendonitis after Tennis Forehand Repetitive Motions

A unique case of a professional tennis player who sustained a traumatic supraspinatus tendonitis while playing Forehand was presented. This case shows how science fields could and should cooperate in the future since this appears to be the first report of high inflammatory of supraspinatus tendon during Forehand motions. Instead of aggressive treatment in the form of surgery, a team of experts decided for new treatment that brought exceptional results.

Open access

Gennaro Boccia, Luisa Pizzigalli, Donato Formicola, Marco Ivaldi and Alberto Rainoldi

Abstract

Neuromuscular assessment of rock climbers has been mainly focused on forearm muscles in the literature. We aimed to extend the body of knowledge investigating on two other upper limb muscles during sport-specific activities in nine male rock climbers. We assessed neuromuscular manifestations of fatigue recording surface electromyographic signals from brachioradialis and teres major muscles, using multi-channel electrode arrays. Participants performed two tasks until volitional exhaustion: a sequence of dynamic pull-ups and an isometric contraction sustaining the body at half-way of a pull-up (with the elbows flexed at 90°). The tasks were performed in randomized order with 10 minutes of rest in between. The normalized rate of change of muscle fiber conduction velocity was calculated as the index of fatigue. The time-to-task failure was significantly shorter in the dynamic (31 ±10 s) than isometric contraction (59 ±19 s). The rate of decrease of muscle fiber conduction velocity was found steeper in the dynamic than isometric task both in brachioradialis (isometric: −0.2 ±0.1%/s; dynamic: −1.2 ±0.6%/s) and teres major muscles (isometric: −0.4±0.3%/s; dynamic: −1.8±0.7%/s). The main finding was that a sequence of dynamic pull-ups lead to higher fatigue than sustaining the body weight in an isometric condition at half-way of a pull-up. Furthermore, we confirmed the possibility to properly record physiological CV estimates from two muscles, which had never been studied before in rock climbing, in highly dynamic contractions.