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Ayman Geddawy, Yasmine F. Ibrahim, Nabil M. Elbahie and Mohammad A. Ibrahim

patients, with or without RBV in phase 2 trials. Moreover, it provides better sustained virological response in relapsing cases from RBV/SOF combination. [17] While it is only currently available as a combination with Sof. Ledipasvir several studies have shown its value as a combination therapy with other DAA therapies, other than SOF. [18] The current recommendation for LDV use suggests there is no need to combine LDV/ SOF with RBV or to prolong the treatment duration for more than 12 weeks. [19] Moreover, a more recent study recommends that a patient with HCV RNA

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Vivek Gollahalli Changrashekar, Srikant R. Gadwalkar, Asha Basavareddy and Rakesh Basavareddy

Abstract

Background and Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. It is marked by disorganized, rapid and irregular atrial contraction. The aim of our study is to determine various clinical presentations in patients with AF and to assess the underlying heart disease in patients with AF using electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography. Subjects and Methods: This study was undertaken at the Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary. It was a prospective, observational study conducted from December 2010 to June 2012. Detailed history was taken from the patients and they were examined according to the prepared proforma. Results: The age of the patients varied from 30 to 85 years. In the present study, the male to female ratio was almost equal, with 24 (48%) male and 26 (52%) female cases. Dyspnea was the most common symptom, followed by palpitations. The pulse deficit varied from 10 to 26 per minute. Rheumatic valvular heart disease was the most common etiology of AF observed in the present study. Mitral stenosis was the most common valvular lesion observed in patients with rheumatic heart disease. Congestive cardiac failure was the most common complication observed, followed by embolic phenomenon. Left ventricular enlargement was seen in 18 cases on chest X-ray. Left atrial enlargement was seen in 33 cases, where 24 cases were of chronic valvular rheumatic heart disease on 2D echocardiography. Conclusion: AF was the most commonly seen rheumatic heart disease, followed by ischemic heart disease. Dyspnea was the most common presenting complaint and congestive cardiac failure was the most common complication.

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Floriana Elvira Ionică, Rigas F. Nikolaos and Florica Popescu

dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 301: 1565-1572, 2009. 8. Vilsboll T, Rosenstock J, Yki-Jarvinen H et al. Sitagliptin, a selective DPP-4 inhibitor, improves glycemic control when added to insulin, with or without metformin, in patients with type 2. Diabetes 58[Suppl 1]: 588, 2009. 9. Fonseca V, Baron M, Shao Q, Dejager S. Sustained efficacy and reduced hypoglycemia during one year of treatment with vildagliptin added to insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res 40: 427-430, 2008

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Cristina Văduva, Simona Popa, Maria Moţa and Eugen Moţa

fluctuations compared with sustained chronic hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. JAMA 295: 1681-1687, 2006. 8. Monnier L, Colette C, Owens DR. Glycemic variability: the third component of the dysglycemia in diabetes. Is it important? How to measure it? J Diabetes Sci Technol 2: 1094-1100, 2008. 9. Monnier L, Colette C. Glycemic variability: should we and can we prevent it ? Diabetes Care 31: S150- S154, 2008. 10. Nelson RG, Tuttle KR. The new KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice

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Michael D. Brennan

and sustained through the embrace and consistent expression of professionalism attitudes and behaviors. These include integrity, accountability, motivation, altruism, empathy, and the pursuit of excellence through lifelong learning. A number of formal definitions of professionalism have been proposed all of which include the word trust. At Mayo Clinic, we define it as “engendering trust by doing the right things, for the right reasons, in the right way, and at the right time.” We believe this definition incorporates all the key attitudes and behaviors. Allied

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Seyed Mansour Alamshah, Aliasghar Hemmati and Zahra Nazari

: 1504-1509, 2001. 4. Williams JZ, Abumrad N, Barbul A. Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition. Ann Surg 236: 369-374, 2002. 5. Zheng XP, Ding Y, Zheng MZ. Effect of zhuhuang frost on wound hydroxyl-proline level after anal operation. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 21: 272-273, 2001. 6. Sakallioglu AE, Yagmurlu A, Dindar H, Hasirci N, Renda N, Deveci MS. Sustained local application of low-dose epidermal growth factor on steroid-inhibited colonic wound healing. J Pediatr Surg 39: 591

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Mihaela Vlad, Bogdan Timar, Adrian Vlad and Romulus Timar

Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. NEJM 329: 977-986, 1993 16. Writing Team for the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Research Group. Sustained effect of intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus on development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Study. JAMA 290: 2159

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Bogdan Timar and Oana Albai

(7): 1486-1490, 2006. 9. Writing Team for the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Research Group . Sustained effect of intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus on development and progression of diabetic nephropathy: the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. JAMA 290(16): 2159-2167, 2003. 10. Ray KK, Seshasai SR, Wijesuriya S et al. Effect of intensive control of glucose on cardiovascular outcomes and death in patients with diabetes

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Suli Wang, Chun Qiao, Yu Zhu, Wenyi Shen, Guangsheng He and Jianyong Li

role of epigenetic therapy: Focus on Decitabine. Semin Hematol 2005;42(3 Suppl 2):S1-2. 10.1053/j.seminhematol.2005.05.003 Issa Jp KantarJian HP. Introduction emerging role of epigenetic therapy: Focus on Decitabine Semin Hematol 2005 42 3 Suppl 2 S1 2 8 Schnekenburger M, Grandjenette C, Ghelfi G, Karius T, Foliguet B, Dicato M, et al . Sustained exposure to the DNA demethylating agent, 2’-deoxy-5-azacytidine, leads to apoptotic cell death in chronic myeloid leukemia by promoting differentiation, senescence, and autophagy. Biochem Pharmacol 2011; 81: 364–78. 10

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Cristian Guja and Andrada Mihai

multiple dosing. Clin Pharmacokinet 50: 65–74, 2011. 12. LaRue S, Malloy J. Evaluation of the dual-chamber pen design for the injection of exenatide once weekly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol 9: 815–821, 2015. 13. Buse JB, Drucker DJ, Taylor KL et al. DURATION-1: exenatide once weekly produces sustained glycemic control and weight loss over 52 weeks. Diabetes Care 33: 1255–1261, 2010. 14. Wysham CH, Philis-Tsimikas A, Klein EJ et al. DURATION-1 extension in patients with T2D: efficacy and tolerability of exenatide