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Damjana Drobne

Nanotoxicology for Safe and Sustainable Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the term given to those areas of science and engineering where the phenomena take place at nanoscale dimensions. Nanoparticles are particles with <100 nm in one dimension. They have different physical, chemical, electrical and optical properties than those that occur in bulk samples of the same material. Understanding these nanoscale properties and finding ways to engineer new nanomaterials will have a revolutionary impact, from more efficient energy generation and data storage to improved methods for diagnosing and treating diseases. Nanotechnology is poised to become a major factor in the world's economy and part of our everyday lives in the near future. Hundreds of tonnes of nanoparticles already enter the environment annually, but still very little is known of their interactions with biological systems. Recent studies indicate that some nanoparticles are not completely benign to biological and environmental targets. The challenge for toxicologists is to identify key factors that can be used to predict toxicity, permit targeted screening, and allow material scientists to generate new, safer nanoparticles with this structure-toxicity information in mind. The aim of this paper is to summarize some known facts about nanomaterials and discuss future perspectives, regulatory issues and tasks of the emerging branch of toxicology, that is, nanotoxicology.

Open access

Helga Hahn

Recovery from an Eighty-Percent Total Body Surface Area Burn Injury Sustained at Work

This article presents a case of severe burn injury at work involving 80 % of body surface area and patient treatment and rehabilitation, which resulted in preserved working ability. The worker was injured by hot water and steam. After initial treatment in the intensive care unit, he underwent comprehensive clinical and outpatient rehabilitation that took 92 weeks, after which he returned to work. His working disability was 100 % after the initial treatment in the intensive care unit, but rehabilitation improved it to 50 %. It should always be kept in mind that even patients with serious or life-threatening injuries can be reintegrated into the workforce if patients, physicians, occupational physicians, and employers all work together.

Open access

Marina Cvjetko Bubalo, Kristina Radošević, Ivana Radojčić Redovniković, Igor Slivac and Višnja Gaurina Srček

Vitro 2012;26:1087-92. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.07.006 30. Paiva A, Craveiro R, Aroso I, Martins M, Reis RL, Duarte ARC. Natural deep eutectic solvents-solvents for the 21st century. ACS Sustainable Chem Eng 2014;2:1063-71. doi: 10.1021/sc500096j 31. Das NR, Roy K. Predictive modeling studies for the ecotoxicity of ionic liquids towards the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus. Chemosphere 2014;104:170-76. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.002 32. Cvjetko Bubalo M, Radošević K, Gaurina Srček V, Das RN, Popelier P, Roy K

Open access

Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska, S Kiprijanovska, E Sukarova-Stefanovska, P Noveski, M Polenakovic and V Chalovska


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem. It is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and the most common indication for liver transplantation. The therapy for eradication of HCV infection is successful in only 50.0-80.0% of patients and is highly dependent on the HCV genotype. Molecular detection and characterization of HCV in the Republic of Macedonia started in 1990. Since then, more than 4000 samples have been analyzed at the Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (RCGEB) “Georgi D. Efremov,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The prevalence of HCV infections in the healthy population of the Republic of Macedonia was found to be 0.4%, while it varies between 23.0 and 43.0% in different at-risk groups of patients. The prevalence of HCV genotypes, according to associated risk factors in HCV infected patients from the Republic of Macedonia, was analyzed. We found genotype 1 to be predominant in a group of hemodialysis patients, while genotype 3 was predominant in intravenous (IV) drug users. Association of six polymorphisms in the Oligoadenylate synthetase (OASL)-like interferonstimulated gene with a sustained virological response was also analyzed. Our preliminary results suggest that non ancestral alleles in four of the six studies polymorphisms in OASL gene are associated with sustained virological response among HCV infected patients in R. Macedonia.

Open access

Ficek K., Stepien-Slodkowska M., Kaczmarczyk M., Maciejewska-Karlowska A., Sawczuk M., Cholewinski J., Leonska-Duniec A., Zarebska A., Cieszczyk P. and Zmijewski P.


One of the most severe injuries sustained by athletes is rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Recent investigations suggest that a predisposition for ACL rupture may be the result of specific genetic sequence variants. In light of this, we decided to investigate whether the COL12A1 A9285G polymorphism was associated with ACL ruptures in Polish football players.

We compared genotypic and allelic frequencies of the COL12A1 A9285G polymorphism in two groups of athletes: 91 male football players (23 ± 3 years) with surgically diagnosed primary ACL ruptures who qualified for ligament reconstruction (cases) and 143 apparently healthy, male football players of the same ethnicity, a similar age category, and a comparable level of exposure to ACL injury, who were without any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury (controls). DNA samples extracted from the oral epithelial cells were genotyped by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Ri-Ti- PCR) method.

The genotype distribution in the cases were not different from those in controls (p = 0.70). The frequency of the G allele was lower in the cases (18.1%) but not statistically significant (p = 0.40) when compared with controls (21.3%).

Our results are in contradiction to the hypothesis that the COL12A1 A9285G polymorphism is associated with a predisposition for ACL injury. However, these conclusions should be supported with more experimental studies on COL12A1 polymorphisms.

Open access

Ivana Gudelj, Jasna Hrenović, Tibela Dragičević, Frane Delaš, Vice Šoljan and Hrvoje Gudelj

Azo Boje, Njihov Utjecaj Na Okoliš I Potencijal Biotehnološke Strategije Za Njihovu Biorazgradnju I Detoksifikaciju

Intenzivan industrijski razvoj popraćen je sve većom kompleksnošću sastava otpadnih voda, što u smislu učinkovite zaštite okoliša i održivog razvoja nalaže potrebu pospješivanja kvalitete postojećih te uvođenjem novih postupaka obrade otpadnih voda, kao iznimno važnog čimbenika u interakciji čovjeka i okoliša. Posebnu znanstveno-tehnološku pozornost zahtijevaju novosintetizirani ksenobiotici, poput azo-boja, koji su u prirodi veoma teško razgradivi. Azo-boje podložne su bioakumulaciji, a zbog alergijskih, kancerogenih, mutagenih i teratogenih svojstava nerijetko su prijetnja zdravlju ljudi i očuvanju okoliša. Primjenu fizikalnokemijskih metoda za uklanjanje azo-boja iz otpadnih voda često ograničavaju visoke cijene, potrebe za odlaganjem nastalog štetnog mulja ili nastanak toksičnih sastojaka razgradnje. Biotehnološki postupci su, zbog mogućnosti ekonomične provedbe i postizanja potpune biorazgradnje, a time i detoksifikacije, sve zastupljeniji u obradi svih vrsta otpadnih voda, pa tako i onih koje sadržavaju azo-boje.

Open access

Silvije Davila, Jadranka Pečar Ilić and Ivan Bešlić

References 1. World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme. Health environment: managing the linkages for sustainable development: a toolkit for decision-makers: synthesis report, 2008 [displayed 23 January 2015]. Available at 2. Kura B, Verma S, Ajdari E, Iyer A. Growing public health concerns from poor urban air quality: strategies for sustainable urban living. CWEEE 2013;3:170-81. doi: 10.4236/cweee.2013.22B001 3

Open access

Mei Yong and Michael Nasterlack

Shift Work and Cancer: State of Science and Practical Consequences

In 2007, an expert Working Group convened by the IARC Monographs Programme concluded that shift work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). We scrutinised the epidemiological basis for this conclusion, with a focus on, but not limited to, breast and prostate cancers. We further considered practical consequences for shift workers in our industry against the background of new findings.

We carried out a literature search including the epidemiological studies cited by IARC and newer available literature on shift work and cancer.

Since the IARC assessment, eleven new studies have emerged, ten of which have already been published, with inconclusive results. Heterogeneity of exposure metrics and study outcomes and emphasis on positive but non-significant results make it difficult to draw general conclusions. Also, several reviews and commentaries, which have been published meanwhile, came to equivocal results. Published evidence is widely seen as suggestive but inconclusive for an adverse association between night work and breast cancer, and limited and inconsistent for cancers at other sites and all cancers combined.

At this point in time it can not be ruled out that shift work including night work may increase the risk for some cancers in those who perform it. However, shift schedules can be organised in ways that minimise the associated health risks, and the risks may be further reduced through the implementation of structured and sustained health promotion programs specifically tailored to the needs of shift workers.

Open access

Marija Kujundžić Brkulj and Jelena Macan

and the use of gloves by Australian hairdressing students and practising hairdressers. Contact Dermatitis 2006;54:112-6. doi: 10.1111/j.0105-1873.2006.00790.x 4. Sartorelli P, Kezic S, Larese Filon F, John SM. Prevention of occupational dermatitis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2011;24(Suppl 1):89S-93S. 5. Wulfhorst B, Bock M, Gediga G, Skudlik C, Allmers H, John SM. Sustainability of an interdisciplinary secondary prevention program for hairdressers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2010;83:165-71. doi: 10.1007/s00420-009-0480-z

Open access

Vladica Čudić, Dragica Kisić, Dragoslava Stojiljković and Aleksandar Jovović

References Canadian Precast Prestressed Concrete Institute. Introduction [displayed 9 September 2006]. Available at López Ch, Unterberger S, Maier J, Hein KRG. Overview of actual methods for characterization of ash depostion. In: Watkinson P, Müller-Steinhagen H, Malayeri MR, editors. Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning: Fundamentals and Applications; 18-22 May 2003; Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. ECI Engineering Conferences International Symposium Series, Volume RP1 (2003