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Sustainable Multilingualism

Darnioji daugiakalbyste

Open access

Ayşegül Takkaç Tulgar

education. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , 449, 129–140. Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing ıntercultural communicative competence . Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Çelik, S., Kazazoğlu, S., & Karaca, B. (2013). Intercultural experience of foreign students: Erasmus students’ perspectives on their development of cross-cultural awareness. Sustainable Multilingualism , 3, 126–136. doi: 10.7220/2335-2027.3.10. Clement, M. & Outlaw, M. (2002). Student teaching abroad: Learning about teaching, culture, and self

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Moreno Bonda and Jurgita Macijauskaitė-Bonda

Companion. Levi, P. (1989). Se questo è un uomo . Torino: Einaudi. Milton, J. (1976). Paradise Lost . Cambridge: Cambridge University press. Mwepu, P. K. (2007). From Self-Identity to Universality: A Reading of Henri Lopes’ Works. Literator , 28(3), 131–144. Nugaraitė, I. (2017). Standard Language Ideology and Its Influence on Lithuanian Migrants. Samogitians' Attitudes Towards Their Language Variety. Sustainable Multilingualism , 11(1), 14–33. Ultima consultazione 23 Apr. 2018. doi:10.1515/sm-2017-0011. Ovidio (2017). Metamorfosi

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Lilija Vilkancienė and Inga Rozgienė

. Retrieved from: http://www.ccn-clil.eu/. Bijeikienė, V., Pundziuvienė, D., & Zutkienė, L. D. (2012). IKT panaudojimas integruojant kalbos ir dalyko mokymą. Sustainable Multilingualism. 1/2012. Bijeikienė, V., & Pundziuvienė, D. (2015). IDKM diegimas Lietuvos bendrojo lavinimo mokyklose: atvejo analizė. SANTAKA: Filologija/Edukologija. 23(1): 1-13. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10,3846/cpe.2015,252. Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL. Content and Language Integrated Learning. CUP. Content and Language

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Mehmet Akpinar

, how do English language teaching programs measure up? Paper presented at the 4 th annual Conference on Sustainable Multilingualism: Language, Culture and Society, Kaunas, Lithuania. Çepni, S. (2013). Araştırma ve proje çalışmalarına giriş [Introduction to research and project studies] (3 rd ed.). Trabzon, Turkey: Celepler Publishing. Ekiz, D. (2009). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri, yaklaşım yöntem ve teknikler [Scientific research methods, approach, method and techniques]. Ankara: Anı Publishing. Erdem, C. (2017). Sınıfında mülteci öğrenci

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Raşit Çelik

-96. Çelik, R. (2014b). Unity vs. uniformity: The influence of Ziya Gökalp and John Dewey on the education system of the Republic of Turkey. Education and Culture, 30, 17-37. Çelik, R. (2016). A historical/political justification for the need for multicultural citizenship education and educators: The case of Turkey and the European Union. Sustainable Multilingualism, 9, 14-31. Dewey, J. (1916/2007). Democracy and education. Middlesex: Echo Library. Dewey, J. (1924/1976). Report and recommendation upon Turkish education. In J

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Lisa Griggio

). Communication from the commission “Europe 2020 – A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth” COM (2010) 2020 final, Brussels, 3-3-2010 . Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A52010DC2020 . European Commission (2017). European Language Label (ELL) for Innovative Initiatives in Language Teaching and Learning Guidelines for implementation . Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/languages/policy/strategic-framework/documents/guidelines-for-implementation-ell_en.doc . European Commission

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Guillem Belmar

Summary

All literature reflects the existing discourse in a given community, and translation –as a process of rewriting texts– is a readily accessible tool which linguistic minorities can use to shift power dynamics in their society or, at least, suggest new paradigms and new discourses. In this paper we analyze the key role which translation plays in the cultural systems of minority languages and how translation helps revitalize these languages. The aim of the paper is to defend this key role of translation in the revitalization processes of all minority languages and, at the same time, to highlight the main obstacles one may come across and to try to establish some basic guidelines which may be applied throughout all these processes to maximize their results. Therefore, this paper deals with language standardization, language planning, choice of texts to translate, source languages of the translations, target audience of the translations, diglossia, actual bilingualism, language orientation in translations and the dichotomy between originals written in the language and translations. In order to do so, we will first picture the theoretical frame upon which this paper is based and we will go on to discuss translation into Basque. Finally, we will establish a set of guidelines for other minority languages.

Open access

Vaida Misevičiūtė

Summary

Technology has altered communication style from face to face to written communication. An increased participation in chats, blogs, and other forms of social media along with a growing trend to work from home or to study on-line has increased the need to perfect academic written communication. Lithuanian students who have been trained in product approach are in desperate need to enhance skills in creativity, self-expression, independence and criticality, skills that can be taught through a process or a post-process approach to writing. An overview of product, process, and post-process approach suggests that second language learners trained in process or post-process approach display significant advantages in academic writing compared to students trained in product approach. Writing has been neglected as a skill for several reasons in Lithuanian English classrooms, yet the demand for academic writing in today’s world is increasing in accelerated speed. Process and post-process approach provides necessary skills that have been highly neglected in ESL teaching in Lithuanian schools and universities.

Open access

John Fredy Gil Bonilla

Summary

The main purpose of this paper is to analyze how culture is embedded in the way viewers from different language backgrounds conceptualize and interpret the same multimodal metaphors. Therefore, interaction between metaphor and culture is hence a crucial aspect of research in this study. Following Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) and Forceville’s (1996, 2009) approaches, this paper examines how a comparative study undertaken from a cross-cultural perspective can shed light on how culture is an influential factor that can trigger changes in interpretations and reactions in the viewers. Data for this research were gathered with the help of 240 participants taken from 8 different language backgrounds. The subjects of this study were supplied with a questionnaire which consisted of three multimodal metaphors and 8 questions. In particular, I want to focus on the following research questions: (1) Which figurative B-term do different cultures conceptualize in a multimodal metaphor? (2) How aggressive are these multimodal metaphors considered by the participants of the study? On the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that not only the cultural background but also the personal has some influence on the way respondents interpret multimodal metaphors. The reactions identified in the responses of the subjects are influenced by different factors: religion, personal and societal experiences, beliefs, etc.