. Pearlman BL, Ehleben C, Saifee S. Treatment extension to 72 weeks of peginterferon and ribavirin in hepatitis C genotype 1-infected slow responders. Hepatology 2007; 46:1688-1694. 24. Jensen DM, Marcellin P, Freilich B, Andreone P, Di Bisceglie A, Brandão-Mello CE, et al. Re-treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C who do not respond to peginterferon-alpha2b: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150:528-540. 25. Ferenci P, Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Smith CI, Marinos G, Goncales FL Jr, et al. Predicting sustained virological
Ming-hui Li, Yao Xie, Yao Lu, Guo-hua Qiu, Lu Zhang, Ge Shen, Li-wei Zhuang, Ju-long Hu, Jian-ping Dong, Cai-qin Mu, Lei-ping Hu, Li-jun Chen, Xing-hong Li, Min Yang, Yun-zhong Wu, Hui Zhao, Shu-jing Song, Jun Cheng and Dao-zhen Xu
Urszula Kosior-Korzecka, Krzysztof Patkowski, Ryszard Bobowiec, Marta Wójcik and Elżbieta Tusińska
The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of maternal obesity and the litter size on the growth rate and plasma concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, and glucose in ewe lambs during the first 6 weeks of their postnatal life. Seventy-six SCP sheep: 35 ewes and 41 female offspring were used. Before gestation, the ewes were divided into two groups: N - normally weighing and O - obese sheep. After the parturition, the lambing rate and the birth type were estimated. The born female lambs were separated into five groups: IN - singleton and IIN - twin offspring of normally weighing mothers; IO - singleton, IIO - twin and IIIO - triplet offspring of obese mothers. They were weighed at birth and weekly thereafter, until the completion of the 6th week of their postnatal life. Afterward, daily weight gains and concentrations of biochemical parameters were analysed. No significant differences in GH, IGF-1, insulin, and glucose levels between the groups of lambs born to non-obese and obese sheep, both carrying singletons and twins, were found. In contrast, significantly increased concentrations of GH (P≤0.001), insulin (P≤0.001), and glucose (P≤0.05) and markedly dropped level of IGF-1 (P≤0.001), as well as reduced daily body mass gains in triplets in comparison to other groups of lambs were observed. Maternal obesity caused significant lambing rate’s accretion with the rise in triplets’ frequency. However, in ewe lambs of this birth type, the disrupted relationships between plasma levels of GH, IGF-1 and growth rate, and between plasma levels of insulin and glucose were found.
Zhu Chen, Yi-lan Zeng, Li Wang, Rong Hu, Yan Wang, Yu-zhen Tang, Li Zhu and Bei Wu
YM, et al. Randomized, open-label and active controlled study of PEGIFNα- 2a in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in China (in Chinese). J Infect Dis 2004;22(4):221-224. 4. Ge D, Fellay J, Thompson AJ, Simon JS, Shianna KV, Urban TJ, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatmentinduced viral clearance. Nature 2009;461:399-401. 5. Lin CY, Chen JY, Lin TN, Jeng WJ, Huang CH, Huang CW, et al. IL28B SNP rs12979860 is a critical predictor for on-treatment and sustained virological response in patients with hepatitis
Maria Nițescu, Cristina Vâjâitu, Oana Săndulescu, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Daniela Pițigoi, Liliana Lucia Preoțescu and Anca Streinu-Cercel
clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 2012 Mar;19(3):173-81. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2011.01497.x 10. Thompson AJ, Muir AJ, Sulkowski MS, Ge D, Fellay J, Shianna KV, et al. Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pretreatment predictor of sustained virologic response in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jul;139(1):120-9 e18. 11. Gheorghe L, Rugina S, Dumitru IM, Franciuc I, Martinescu A, Balas I. HLA class II alleles in Romanian patients with chronic hepatitis C
Hanyu Wang and Weihong Kuang
multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled study of efficacy and safety of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in the prophylaxis of chronic graft-versus-host disease after HLA-haploidentical stem-cell transplantation J. Clin. Oncol. 2016 34 24 2843 2850  Ball, L.M., Bernardo, M.E., Roelofs, H., van Tol, M.J., Contoli, B., Zwaginga, J.J., et al., Multiple infusions of mesenchymal stromal cells induce sustained remission in children with steroid-refractory, grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease, Br. J. Haematol., 2013, 163(4), 501
Tünde Tőrők-Vistai, Manuela Sfichi, Anca Bojan and Cristina Pojoga
Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.2006;15(11):2078-2085. 10. Imai Y, Oshawa M, Tanaka H. High prevalence of HCV infection in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: comparison with birth cohort-and sex-matched blood donors in a Japanese population. Hepatology. 2002;35:974-6. 11. Al-Ghiti AAO, Arbanas T, Diculescu M. Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C and B viral infection in patients with lymphoproliferations sustain their role in lymphomagenesis. Medica. 2006;4(1):5-11. 12. Yenice N, Gulluk F, Arican N, Turkmen S
Petar Dimitrov, Konstantin Simeonov, Katerina Todorova, Zina Ivanova, Reneta Toshkova, Evelina Shikova and Russy Russev
Rabbits and rats were inoculated with material derived from FLK cells producing permanently bovine leukaemia virus (BLV). The viral presence in the inoculum was proved by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, immunogold labelling demonstrating viral Tax protein, and PCR analysis. About 30 % of the infected animals sustained BLV seropositivity during the experiment, and demonstrated symptoms of lympholeukaemia - clinical manifestation of an immunosuppressive condition, increased number of lymphocytes and lymphoblasts, and preneoplastic lymphoid cell accumulations in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and lymph nodes. BLV DNA, detected by PCR in diseased animals, indicates the role of BLV as an aetiological factor of lympholeukaemia, developed in these animals after BLV infection. The alterations in rats were more pronounced than those in rabbits. The results prove that these two species of laboratory animals, especially rats, are suitable models for the in vivo studies of leukaemogenesis caused by BLV/HTLV infections.
Krzysztof Lutnicki, Eligiusz Madej, Tomasz Riha and Łukasz Kurek
Polioencephalomalacia as a result of sulphur excess is a growing problem in cattle and sheep, mainly in young, growing animals. It is common in different regions of the world. The disease develops favoured by certain conditions such as sustained provision of feed and water with high sulphur content, use of dietary supplements containing sulphur, and a habitat with high hydrogen sulphide concentration. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex, but very important are oxidative-antioxidative imbalance, dysfunction of vessels, and secondary cerebral cortex ischaemia as a result of direct and/or indirect action of sulphur metabolites, namely hydrogen sulphide, sulphides, and sulphites. Clinical signs and changes in the cerebral cortex in the form of degenerative necrotic lesions are similar to those observed in polioencephalomalacia caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, and lead and salt intoxication. Highly increased sulphur content (more than 0.3-0.4 of dry matter) in the diet is the basis for differential diagnosis, as well the high concentration of hydrogen sulphide in gas and sulphides in rumen fluid. In prophylaxis and treatment the most important measure is to limit sulphur intake and in acute cases to neutralise low pH in rumen and administer vitamin B1 injections.
Laszlo Mihaela, Oliviu Pascu, Daniel-Corneliu Leucuta and Vasile Andreica
Introduction: The infection with Clostridium difficile has increased in incidence worldwide and it raises many problems with regard to therapy, resistance to treatment and especially recurrence. Recurrence is frequent in patients treated for Clostridium difficile infection, requiring vancomycin by mouth, with limited alternatives. The literature shows that one of the most efficient treatment methods in Clostridium difficile infection is the transplantation of gut microbiota, also known as fecal microbiota transplantation. Aim: We present our results following FMT performed in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and propose a simple and effective protocol for fecal microbiota transplantation. Study design: The study was prospective. The phases of the FMT procedure: assessment of patient eligibility, patient’s consent, identification and screening of donors, discontinuation of antibiotics (vancomycin, metronidazole) 3 days prior to the procedure. Methods: Between 2013 and 2015, FMT was performed in 30 patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, by direct infusion of extensively processed donor fecal matter via colonoscopy. We followed up the patients for 12 months. Results: Immediate post-transplantation outcome in what concerns stool frequency during the follow-up period (7 days) was encouraging in 93.33% of patients. The donors were healthy individuals (53% 1st degree relatives), previously screened for possible infections and infestations. This result was sustained at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Post-transplantation recurrence occurred in 6.67% (2 patients), which responded well to treatment and did not require a new vancomycin course. Conclusions: Fecal microbiota transplantation via colonoscopy is effective, safe, easy to perform, it yields lasting results and is therefore a good option for recurrent or treatment-resistant Clostridium difficile infection.
Sorin Dinu, Grațiela Țârdei, Emanoil Ceaușu, Simin Aysel Florescu, Laurențiu Micu, Alina Monica Ecobici, Mariana Mihăilă and Gabriela Oprișan
Background: Severe complications of chronic hepatitis C – i.e. cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma – are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the overwhelming rates of sustained virologic response achieved after therapy with different combinations of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), treatment failure is still recorded, and is due to the mutations harboured by hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance associated variants (RAVs) selected during therapy. Baseline RAVs testing was found significant for guiding treatment in the cases of treatment failure and, sometimes, in naïve patients.
Methods: Romanian chronic hepatitis C patients unexposed to DAAs and infected with subtype 1b HCV were studied. Serum samples were used for Sanger population sequencing of a fragment containing NS3 viral protease, known to harbour resistance mutation against protease inhibitors (PIs).
Results: Catalytic triad and zinc-binding site in the studied sequences were conserved. Low-intermediate resistance mutations to first generation PIs were detected either alone or in conjunction with resistance substitutions associated with second generation PIs. Cross-resistance and reduced susceptibility to certain DAAs were observed.
Discussion: This study focused on HCV patients infected with subtype 1b strains, the most prevalent in Romania. The rate of RAVs found in this work is consistent with the results reported by similar studies from other countries. Noticeably, numerous polymorphisms of unknown significance to DAAs resistance, but reflecting the high genetic variability of HCV, were found in the studied sequences. Testing for RAVs can be a useful method for guiding treatment in a cost-efficient manner in developing countries where access to DAAs is limited.