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Sebastian Masternak, Nikodem Skoczeń, Ewelina Dziwota and Marcin Olajossy

Abstract

Alcohol dependence and its treatment is not an exactly resolved problem. Based on the EZOP [Epidemiology of Mental Disorders and Accessibility of Mental Health Care] survey, which included a regular analysis of the incidence of mental disorders in the population of adult Polish citizens, we were able to estimate that the problem of alcohol abuse in any period of life affects even 10.9% of the population aged 18-64 years, and those addicted represent 2.2% of the country’s population. The typical symptoms of alcohol dependence according to ICD-10, include alcohol craving, impaired ability to control alcohol consumption, withdrawal symptoms which appear when a heavy drinker stops drinking, alternating alcohol tolerance, growing neglect of other areas of life, and persistent alcohol intake despite clear evidence of its destructive effect on life. At the moment, the primary method of alcoholism treatment is psychotherapy. It aims to change the patient’s habits, behaviours, relationships, or the way of thinking. It seems that psychotherapy is irreplaceable in the treatment of alcoholism, but for many years now attempts have been made to increase the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment with pharmacological agents. In this article we will try to provide a description of medications which help patients sustain abstinence in alcoholism therapy with particular emphasis on baclofen.

Open access

Ewa Zawadzka and Łucja Domańska

Abstract

Hypertension is a common problem in the elderly population. It is one of the factors determining the pattern of cognitive functioning of the patients, however the nature and severity of neuropsychological deficits are unclear. The main aim of the study was to assess effectiveness of cognitive task performance and the strategies of verbal material organization in patients with varying levels of productivity and control. The outpatients treated for hypertension (n = 46) were tested with the following neuropsychological tests and the experimental task: Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Semantic Verbal Fluency Task (VF). The level of productivity and control in older hypertensive patients appeared to be important variables differentiating the effectiveness of structured task performance involving the memory and learning of verbal material. Patients with weaker productivity and control show less efficiency in formulating and sustaining a learning plan expressed by the compatibility of responses in subsequent attempts. Weaker productivity and control are associated with high risk of memory problems, especially in situations characterized by a high degree of structure. It is advisable to include an evaluation of certain aspects of executive functions at the initial stage of assessment of patients at risk of brain dysfunction.

Open access

Urszula Łopuszańska and Marta Makara-Studzińska

Abstract

Introduction: In the 21st century there is an increased prevalence of depression in the world. So far the mechanism of developing depression has not been exactly known. Risk factors of depression occurrence are complex and nowadays it has been emphasized that air pollution can affect the intensity of depressive symptoms.

Objective: The analysis of the scientific works investigating the correlations between air pollution and depression.

Material and method: The material consisted of the studies published between 2007 and 2017. A systematic review of Medline database (using PubMed search engine) was conducted by typing the English phrase (air pollution) and (depression), and 154 results were obtained. Those results which concerned nicotine addiction or dementia diseases were rejected. The inclusion criterion was the number of people tested, n>500 in case of adults, and n>200 in case of children (a small number of publications). All in all, 9 research in the population of adults and 1 research in the group of children were included to the final analysis. In the discussion part of this work some research carried out on animals and related to the subject matter of own analyses were also investigated.

Results: As many as 8 out of 10 analyzed research demonstrated statistically significant correlation between long-term exposure to air pollution (mainly to fine particulate matter, PM) and depression. This correlation mainly concerned intensification of depressive symptoms during long exposure to air pollution. The exposure also resulted in changes in the neuro-transfer of serotonin and as well in neurodegenerative changes in children exposed to long-term pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in prenatal life. Testing on animals indicates that air pollution affects the activation of proinflammatory processes in hippocampus, what may incidentally contribute to the formation of depressive and cognitive symptoms.

Conclusions: In view of the increase of depression incidence and constantly sustained air pollution in the world, there is a need for further research on the correlation between air pollution and depression, taking into account the genetic, social and psychological factors.

Open access

J. Osacka, L. Horvathova, Z. Majercikova and Alexander Kiss

-Johnson D, Guo SZ, Sachleben LR Jr, Haycock JW, Gozal D, Czyzyk-Krzeska MF. Regulation of catecholamines by sustained and intermittent hypoxia in neuroendocrine cells and sympathetic neurons. Hypertension 42, 1130-1136, 2003. Hokfelt T, Johansson O, Fuxe K, Goldstein M, Park D. Immunohistochemical studies on the localization and distribution of monoamine neuron systems in the rat brain. I. Tyrosine hydroxylase in the mes- and diencephalon. Med Biol 54, 427-453, 1976. Horsburgh A, Massoud TF. Th e circumventricular organs of the brain

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P. Vargovic, G. Manz and R. Kvetnansky

v isceral adipose tissue with incident myocardial infarction in older men and women: the health, aging and body composition study, Am J Epidemiol 160, 741-749, 2004. Nguyen KD, Qiu Y, Cui X, Goh YP, Mwangi J, David T, Mukundan L, Brombacher F, Locksley RM, Chawla A. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis. Nature 480, 104-108, 2011. Olefsky JM, Glass CK. Macrophages, inflammation and insulin resistance. Annu Rev Physiol 72, 219-246, 2010. Qiu Y, Nguyen KD, Odegaard

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L. Pecenova and Robert Farkas

, Thakur MK. AIB1 shows variation in interaction with ERβTAD and expression as a function of age in mouse brain. Biogerontology 12, 321-328, 2011. Parker MG, White R. Nuclear receptors spring into action. Nat Struct Biol 3, 113-115, 1996. Percharde M, Lavial F, Ng JH, Kumar V, Tomaz RA, Martin N, Yeo JC, Gil J, Prabhakar S, Ng HH, Parker MG, Azuara V. Ncoa3 functions as an essential Esrrb coactivator to sustain embryonic stem cell self-renewal and reprogramming. Genes Dev 26, 2286-2298, 2012. Pogenberg V, Guichou JF, Vivat

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Barnaby Nelson and Louis A. Sass

endophenotype in schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry 2008;63:458-464. 100 Hong LE, Avila MT, Thaker GK: Response to unexpected target changes during sustained visual tracking in schizophrenic patients. Exp Brain Res 2005;165:125-131. 101 Morris R, Griffiths O, Le Pelley ME, Weickert TW: Attention to irrelevant cues is related to positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia bulletin 2012;39:575-582. 102 Hoffman RE, Woods SW, Hawkins KA, Pittman B, Tohen M, Preda A, Breier A, Glist J, Addington J, Perkins DO, McGlashan TH: Extracting spurious messages

Open access

K. Voglova, J. Bezakova and Iveta Herichova

J, Chang WG, Andrejecsk JW, Abrahimi P, Cheng CJ, Jane-wit D, Saltzman WM, Pober JS. Sustained delivery of proangiogenic microRNA-132 by nanoparticle transfection improves endothelial cell transplantation. FASEB J 28, 908−922, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.13-238527 DeVincenzo J, Lambkin-Williams R, Wilkinson T, Cehelsky J, Nochur S, Walsh E, Meyers R, Gollob J, Vaishnaw A. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of an RNAi-based therapy directed against respiratory syncytial virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 8800, 2010. http