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Maria Nițescu, Cristina Vâjâitu, Oana Săndulescu, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Daniela Pițigoi, Liliana Lucia Preoțescu and Anca Streinu-Cercel

clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 2012 Mar;19(3):173-81. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2011.01497.x 10. Thompson AJ, Muir AJ, Sulkowski MS, Ge D, Fellay J, Shianna KV, et al. Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pretreatment predictor of sustained virologic response in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jul;139(1):120-9 e18. 11. Gheorghe L, Rugina S, Dumitru IM, Franciuc I, Martinescu A, Balas I. HLA class II alleles in Romanian patients with chronic hepatitis C

Open access

Yanina Benedetti

, I.J. & Van Bommel, F.P.J. (2006) Further evidence of continent-wide impacts of agricultural intensification on European farmland birds, 1990-2000. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 116(3-4), 189-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.02.007 Dorresteijn, I., Loos, J., Hanspach, J. & Fischer, J. (2015) Socioecological drivers facilitating biodiversity conservation in traditional farming landscapes. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 1(9), art28. https://doi.org/10.1890/EHS15-0021.1 EC. (2005) Council Regulation of 20

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Tünde Tőrők-Vistai, Manuela Sfichi, Anca Bojan and Cristina Pojoga

Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.2006;15(11):2078-2085. 10. Imai Y, Oshawa M, Tanaka H. High prevalence of HCV infection in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: comparison with birth cohort-and sex-matched blood donors in a Japanese population. Hepatology. 2002;35:974-6. 11. Al-Ghiti AAO, Arbanas T, Diculescu M. Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C and B viral infection in patients with lymphoproliferations sustain their role in lymphomagenesis. Medica. 2006;4(1):5-11. 12. Yenice N, Gulluk F, Arican N, Turkmen S

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Laszlo Mihaela, Oliviu Pascu, Daniel-Corneliu Leucuta and Vasile Andreica

Abstract

Introduction: The infection with Clostridium difficile has increased in incidence worldwide and it raises many problems with regard to therapy, resistance to treatment and especially recurrence. Recurrence is frequent in patients treated for Clostridium difficile infection, requiring vancomycin by mouth, with limited alternatives. The literature shows that one of the most efficient treatment methods in Clostridium difficile infection is the transplantation of gut microbiota, also known as fecal microbiota transplantation. Aim: We present our results following FMT performed in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and propose a simple and effective protocol for fecal microbiota transplantation. Study design: The study was prospective. The phases of the FMT procedure: assessment of patient eligibility, patient’s consent, identification and screening of donors, discontinuation of antibiotics (vancomycin, metronidazole) 3 days prior to the procedure. Methods: Between 2013 and 2015, FMT was performed in 30 patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, by direct infusion of extensively processed donor fecal matter via colonoscopy. We followed up the patients for 12 months. Results: Immediate post-transplantation outcome in what concerns stool frequency during the follow-up period (7 days) was encouraging in 93.33% of patients. The donors were healthy individuals (53% 1st degree relatives), previously screened for possible infections and infestations. This result was sustained at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Post-transplantation recurrence occurred in 6.67% (2 patients), which responded well to treatment and did not require a new vancomycin course. Conclusions: Fecal microbiota transplantation via colonoscopy is effective, safe, easy to perform, it yields lasting results and is therefore a good option for recurrent or treatment-resistant Clostridium difficile infection.

Open access

Sorin Dinu, Grațiela Țârdei, Emanoil Ceaușu, Simin Aysel Florescu, Laurențiu Micu, Alina Monica Ecobici, Mariana Mihăilă and Gabriela Oprișan

Abstract

Background: Severe complications of chronic hepatitis C – i.e. cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma – are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the overwhelming rates of sustained virologic response achieved after therapy with different combinations of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), treatment failure is still recorded, and is due to the mutations harboured by hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance associated variants (RAVs) selected during therapy. Baseline RAVs testing was found significant for guiding treatment in the cases of treatment failure and, sometimes, in naïve patients.

Methods: Romanian chronic hepatitis C patients unexposed to DAAs and infected with subtype 1b HCV were studied. Serum samples were used for Sanger population sequencing of a fragment containing NS3 viral protease, known to harbour resistance mutation against protease inhibitors (PIs).

Results: Catalytic triad and zinc-binding site in the studied sequences were conserved. Low-intermediate resistance mutations to first generation PIs were detected either alone or in conjunction with resistance substitutions associated with second generation PIs. Cross-resistance and reduced susceptibility to certain DAAs were observed.

Discussion: This study focused on HCV patients infected with subtype 1b strains, the most prevalent in Romania. The rate of RAVs found in this work is consistent with the results reported by similar studies from other countries. Noticeably, numerous polymorphisms of unknown significance to DAAs resistance, but reflecting the high genetic variability of HCV, were found in the studied sequences. Testing for RAVs can be a useful method for guiding treatment in a cost-efficient manner in developing countries where access to DAAs is limited.

Open access

Cătălina Poiană, Diana Păun and Mara Carsote

Abstract

The neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are more frequent during the last decades. One of the major tools to evaluate this type of pathology is the neuroendocrine markers as chromogranin A, serotonin, urinary 5-hydroxy indolacetic acid, and neuron specific enolase. They change related to the disease progression, regardless therapy. Some of the drugs that are used for NETs as somatostatin analogs (for example octreotide) might interfere with glucose metabolism. Objectives. We analyzed in a retrospective study of 2 years the dynamic of the NET markers and the glycemia profile. Material and Methods. All the patients had at least one assay per year. Results. 9 patients were included (5 women and 4 men), with a mean age of 57.33 years. They were treated before the study with octreotide for 18 +/- 14.69 months. The dose of octreotide varied from 20 to 50 mg, monthly. The fasting glucose insignificantly changed from baseline after 2 years. No new case of diabetes was registered. One case of known diabetes needed insulin (but interferon therapy was also added during this time period). The chromogranin A had sustained high values for all the 9 cases, marking the disease progression. The neuron specific enolase significantly increased, and the serum serotonin as well as the 5HIIA was much higher in 2 cases with aggressive carcinoid symptoms. Conclusion. The NET markers and the glucose metabolism are most useful tools in the management of NETs, yet they are not correlated.

Open access

Federico Morelli and Anders Pape Møller

., Meyfroidt, P., Mooney, H. a, Nel, J.L., Pascual, U., Payet, K., Harguindeguy, N.P., Peterson, G.D., Prieur-Richard, A.-H., Reyers, B., Roebeling, P., Seppelt, R., Solan, M., Tschakert, P., Tscharntke, T., Turner, B., Verburg, P.H., Viglizzo, E.F., White, P.C. & Woodward, G. (2015) Linking biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being: three challenges for designing research for sustainability. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain., 14, 76-85. Black, J., Hashimzade, N. & Myles, G. (2012) A dictionary of economics, 4th ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Carrasco, L

Open access

Mark Nelson

-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.03.019 Nelson, M., Dempster, W.F. & Allen, J.P., (2009) The Water Cycle in Closed Ecological Systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere Systems. Advances in Space Research, 44(12), 1404-1412. Nelson, M., Allen, J.P., Alling, A., Dempster, W.F. & Silverstone, S. (2003) Earth applications of closed ecological systems: relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere. Advances in Space Research, 31(7), 1649-1656. Nelson, M & Dempster, W

Open access

Christine Fürst

Economics, 41(3), 393-408. Díaz, S., Demissew, S., Carabias, J., Joly, C., Lonsdale, M., Ash, N., Larigauderie, A., Adhikari, J.R., Arico, S., Baldi, A., Bartuska, A., Baste, I.A., Bilgin, A., Brondizio, E., Chan, K.M.A., Figueroa, V.E., Duraiappah, A., Fischer, M., Hill, R., Koetz, T., Leadley, P., Lyver, P., Mace, G.M., Martin-Lopez, B., Okumura, M., Pacheco, D., Pascual, U., Perez, E.S. & Reyers, B. (2015a) The IPBES Conceptual Framework-connecting nature and people. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 14, 1-16. Díaz, S

Open access

W.N. Hauwanga, B. McBenedict and B.J. Strohbach

.A.B., 1997. The Kalahari transect: research on global change and sustainable development in Southern Africa. Global Change Report (Sweden). Seymour, C. and Milton, S., 2003. A collation and overview of research information on Acacia erioloba (Camelthorn) and identification of relevant research gaps to inform protection of the species. Contract, 31 (2003/089). Skarpe, C., 1996. Plant functional types and climate in a southern African savanna. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7 (3), 397-404. Stafford, W., Birch, C., Etter, H