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Edita Gruodytė and Linas Meškys

enforcement%20working%20paper1.pdf (accessed January 13, 2009). Cornelissen, A. M. G., et al. "Assessment of sustainable development: a novel approach using fuzzy set theory." Erasmus Research Institute of Management, Report Series Research in Management (2000) // Dambrauskienė, Genovaitė, et al. Lietuvos teisės pagrindai (Basics of Lithuanian law). Vilnius: Justitia, 2004

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Jurga Bučaitė-Vilkė, Remigijus Civinskas and Aistė Lazauskienė

–285. 19. Kanapinskas, Virginijus, Žydrūnas Plytnikas, and Agnė Tvaronavičіenė. “In-house procurement exception: Threat for sustainable procedure of public procurement?” Journal of Security & Sustainability Issues 4(2) (2014): 147-158. 20. Ladner, Andreas, Nicolas Keuffer, and Harald Baldersheim. “Measuring local autonomy in 39 countries (1990–2014).” Regional & Federal Studies Vol. 26, No. 3 (2016): 321–357 // DOI: 10.1080/13597566.2016.1214911. 21. Lamothe, Scott, Meeyoung Lamothe, and Richard C. Feiock. “Examining local government service delivery

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Genys Dainius and Krikštolaitis Ričardas

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ang, B. W., W. L. Choong, and T. S. Ng. “Energy security: Definitions, dimensions and indexes.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015): 1077–1093. 2. Ang, B. W., A. R. Mu, and P. Zhou. “Accounting framework for tracking energy efficiency trends.” Energy Economics 32 (2010): 1209–1219. 3. Bassi, Andrea M., Joel S. Yudken, and Matthias Ruth. “Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors.” Energy Policy 37 (2009): 3052–3060. 4. Belke, Ansgar, Frauke Dobnik, and

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Lyra Jakulevičienė and Mantas Bileišis

Rights Language.” European Journal of Migration and Law 11:4 (2009): 347–366. 38. Selm, Joanne van. “Are asylum and immigration really a European Union issue?” Forced Migration Review 51 (2016): 60–62. 39. Trauner, Florian, and Sarah Wolff. “The Negotiation and Contestation of EU Migration Policy Instruments: A Research Framework.” European Journal of Migration and Law 16:1 (2014): 1–18. 40. UNHCR (The UN Refugee Agency). “The integration of resettled refugees. Essentials for establishing a resettlement programme and fundamentals for sustainable

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Mindaugas Kiškis


This article reports on a qualitative study of Intellectual Property regulation in Canadian universities, visited by the author. The study was based on policy and regulation comparative analysis, as well as semi-structured expert interviews carried out at Southern Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia universities. The principal assumption and purpose of the study is the useful understanding of the Canadian university intellectual property policies for potential applications to Lithuania and other emerging economies in the Baltic region and elsewhere. The study aimed to review and identify features of Canadian university intellectual property regimes, which can be held responsible for stimulating and sustaining technological innovation.

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Viktorija Rusinaitė


In Belarus the state systematically hinders the development of civil society. NGOs have difficulties registering, functioning and sustaining their organisations. Some individuals related to the civil sector are persecuted, fined, imprisoned. Therefore a number of NGOs are registered abroad and civil society activists move with them to continue their work on Belarusian issues. In this article we aim to define people who left Belarus in order to work for Belarus as Belarusian Political Nomads, using the notion of transnational subjectivity to explore their migration strategies.

The article is based on 15 semi-structured interviews held in London (UK) and Vilnius (LT). Interviews were analysed using the concepts of transnational subjectivities and political nomadism, and combining elements from a critical events narrative analysis approach.

People who left Belarus to work for Belarus are Belarusian Political Nomads, because they create new democratic development visions for Belarus. Their individual political motivation can stem from the critical events that were registered in this research as turning points. Informants, individual conditions, histories and life experiences influence the outcomes of these events in terms of interpretation and induced motivation to engage in civil society activities.

Belarusian Political Nomads form their migration strategies on the basis of their transnational subjectivities, which can be characterised by temporal and symbolic relations to the receiving country, and long-term intensive dissociative relations to the sending countries’ political regime, as well as a strong relationship to the new visions of Belarus.

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Auksė Balčytienė, Lina Auškalnienė, Inesa Birbilaitė and Aušra Vinciūnienė

Localizing Global Political Matters Through New Media: Some Reflections on Communication Culture

This paper seeks to reassess the potential of new media in transnational political communication. It questions whether a wide availability of online news sources offering diverse views could become useful means in overcoming national (cultural and geographic) barriers in reporting about global political matters.

The discussion here moves on several levels of analysis. First, it draws attention to the impact of the Internet on political communication. By relying on results obtained from research studies in international (European) news communication, it also stresses the significance of contextual factors (local political, economic and cultural conditions) in transnational political communication. The paper proposes that the Internet and social media applications (blogs, social forums) may help journalists as well as citizens to retrieve background information on complex issues of global character. Simultaneously, such online communication where common interests of citizens are recognized and addressed in less formal manner may help different audiences to develop a sense of transnational understanding which could enrich news and views communicated. On the other hand, this paper also stresses that there is no universal culture of communication; instead, all characteristics of communication are related to different political, economic, social and cultural conditions where these traditions, values and norms have developed and are sustained.

The paper concludes that the communication of global political matters involves two conflicting paradigms of globalization and localism. Both of these paradigms must be adequately addressed in the analysis of the role and functions of the Internet in communication of global political matters to local audiences.

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Liudas Mažylis and Aušrinė Jurgelionytė

The Lithuanian Referendum on Extending the Working of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station: The Rationality of Actors within (Un-)Changing Structures

This article explores the structural factors and the arguments of the political actors in the Lithuanian referendum of 2008 on extending the working of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station. By applying a new institutionalism theoretical perspective, this article studies campaign development, its structural framework and the actors' arguments. The presupposition has been confirmed that the value normative environment of the referendum was long-term and sustained, without any "paradigmatic shifts" during the referendum debates themselves. With that said, the equilibrium of competing normative attitudes was shifted towards agreeing with an extension of the work as a "minor evil". Within this structural environment, a range of "second order" features was typical for the referendum campaign model, additionally reinforced by another parallel (chronologically coinciding) campaign, that of the elections to the Seimas. Minor shifts in the otherwise overwhelming YES vote could be evoked by formal mechanical nuances, if nothing else. The diverse positions of the political actors involved in the campaign - whether active, critical, reluctant, or floating ones - were supposed to shift their opinion(s) within a stable structural value normative environment, not seeking any reconsideration. This model of referendum campaign development is typical for the Lithuanian direct democracy tradition. Frequently, a referendum serves as a supplementary formal institutional instrument allowing an expansion of the field of political debates and/or the possibility for political actors to place themselves within a stable value normative structure where they may strive for additional mobilization of behalf of their electorate.

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Dainius Genys and Ričardas Krikštolaitis

. “A Standard International Socio-economic Index of Occupational Status.” Social Science Research Vol. 21, No. 1 (1992): 1–56 // DOI: 10.1016/0049-089X(92)90017-B. 8. Genys, Dainius, and Ričardas Krikštolaitis. “The public perception of nuclear energy in Lithuania.” Journal of Security Sustainability Issues Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017): 17–25 // DOI: 10.9770/jssi.2017.7.1(2). 9. Goodfellow, Martin J., Paul Dewick, Jonathan Wortley, and Adisa Azapagic. “Public perceptions of design options of new nuclear plants in the UK.” Process Safety and Environmental

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Saulė Milčiuvienė and Julius Paškevičius

subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. Official Journal, 2009, L 140/52. 12. “Energy 2020 A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy” (2010) // NOT (accessed January 14, 2014) 13. “Financing renewable energy in the European energy market” (2011) // (accessed January 14, 2014). 14. Fuinhas, José A., and António C. Marques