References 1. Regulamento das Características de Comportamento Térmico dos Edifícios (RCCTE), (Thermal Buildings Regulation, in Portuguese). Decree-Law n. º 40/90, of February 6 th, 1990. 2. M.S. Todorovic, J.T. Kim, Buildings energy sustainability and health research via interdisciplinarity and harmony, Energy and Building 47 12-19, 2012. 3. F. Umbach. Global energy security and the implications for the EU. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 1229-1240, 2010. 4. J. Bielecki. Energy security: Is the wolf at
E. Plebankiewicz, K. Zima and D. Wieczorek
in the Kuwaiti construction industry: a contractors’ perspective”, International Journal of Project Management 19(6): 325-335, 2001. 11. T. Kasprowicz, “Proces analizy koncepcyjnej, projektowania, organizacji i realizacji przedsięwzięć budowlanych”, Czasopismo Techniczne. Technical Transactions z.1-B: 177-189, 2010. 12. C. C. Menassa, “Evaluating sustainable retrofits in existing buildings under uncertainty”, Energy and Buildings 43(12): 3576-3583, 2011. 13. I. Rybka, E. Bondar-Nowakowska, “Risk of alterations to
na lata 2013-2016”, Warszawa 2013. 4. Rada Ministrow, KIS 8. Inteligentne i Energooszczędne Budownictwo, Warszawa 2014. 5. Skanska S.A. Sustainability case studies, 2015 [http://group.skanska.com/sustainability/our-journey-to-deepgreen/green-bim/. 6. McGraw - Hill Construction, SmartMarket Report, “Green BIM: How Building Information Modeling is Contributing to Green Design and Construction”, Bedford, 2010. 7. S. Azhar “BIM for sustainable design: results of an industry survey”, in: Journal of Building
M. Tamil Selvi and T. S. Thandavamoorthy
of Steel and Poly propylene Fibre Reinforced Concrete Slabs 7th International Conference. Concrete: Construction's Sustainable Option - Harnessing Fibres for Concrete Construction, Dundee, Scotland, 8-10 July 2008. 5. Gonnerman HF. Effect of size and shape of test specimen on compressive strength of concrete. Proceedings ASTM 1925; 25: 237–50. 6. Markeset G, Hillerborg A. Softening of concrete in compression localization and size effects. CemConcr Res 1995;25(4):702–8. 7. Jansen DC, Shah SP. Effect of length on compressive strain softening of
T. S. Thandavamoorthy
Concrete is generally produced using materials such as crushed stone and river sand to the extent of about 80-90% combined with cement and water. These materials are quarried from natural sources. Their depletion will cause strain on the environment. To prevent this, bottom ash produced at thermal power plants by burning of coal has been utilized in this investigation into making concrete. The experimental investigation presents the development of concrete containing lignite coal bottom ash as fine aggregate in various percentages of 25, 50, and 100. Compressive, split tensile, and flexural strength as part of mechanical properties; acid, sulphate attack, and sustainability under elevated temperature as part of durability properties, were determined. These properties were compared with that of normal concrete. It was concluded from this investigation that bottom ash to an extent of 25% can be substituted in place of river sand in the production of concrete.
M. Rama and V. M. Shanthi
Pervious concrete is a unique and effective material used to tackle important environmental problems, to maintain green, sustainable growth, and to reduce storm water runoff and pollutants. Clogging of pervious concrete is an important potential issue in serviceability, considered one of the primary limitations of pervious concrete systems. The sediment deposition pattern of pervious concrete was determined using three clogging materials: clay, sand, and clayey silty sand. The clogged specimens were cleaned by pressure washing, vacuuming, and a combined method. In total, ten clogging and cleaning cycles were carried out on each sample to evaluate the draining capacity of the pervious concrete. The clogging test was assessed by measuring the infiltration rate during clogging and after cleaning, for each cycle. The experiment results showed that a reduction in permeability due to different types of sedimentation material as well as recovery in permeability was achieved after applying various cleaning methods.
B. Jaworska, J. J. Sokołowska, P. Łukowski and J. Jaworski
The introduction of the sustainable development elements in the construction industry leads to finding new ways of using waste minerals that are difficult in storage and recycling. Coal combustion products have been already introduced into building materials as a part of cement or concrete but they have been thought insufficiently compatible with the polymer-cement binders . The paper presents results of the mechanical properties of polymer-cement composites containing two types of mineral additives: waste perlite powder that is generated during the perlite expanding process, and calcium fly ash which is the byproduct of burning coal in conventional furnaces. Mechanical tests of polymer-cement composites modified with wastes were carried out after 28 and 90 days of curing. As a part of preliminary study specific surface area and particle size distribution of mineral wastes were determined.
The paper presents the author’s non-linear FEM solution of an initially stressless deformed flat frame element, in which the nodes are situated along the axis of the bar initially straight. It has been assumed that each node may sustain arbitrary displacements and rotation. The solution takes into account the effect of shear, the geometrical non-linearity with large displacements (Green-Lagrange’s strain tensor) and moderate rotations (i.e. such ones which allow a linear-elastic behaviour of the material) and alternative small rotations when the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor is applied. This solution is based on , concerning beams without any initial bow imperfections. The convergence of the obtained results at different numbers of nodes and Gauss points in the element was tested basing on the example of circular arcs with a central angle of 120° ÷180°. The analysis concerned elements with two, three, five, seven, nine and eleven nodes, for the same number of points of numerical integration and also with one more or less. Moreover, the effect of distributing the load on the convergence of the results was analyzed.
O. Kaplinski, F. Peldschus and J. Tamosaitiene
. http://colloquium.vgtu.lt/index.php/14_ISCTM/ISCTM/paper/view/1/1 . 7. Tamosaitiene J., Bartkiene L., Vilutiene T. The New Development Trend of Operational Research in Civil Engineering and Sustainable Development as a result of collaboration between German–Lithuanian–Polish Scientific Triangle , Journal of Business Economics and Management, 11 , 2, 316–340, 2010. 8. Kapliński O. Professor Edmundas K. Zavadskas: the research achievements and trans-border cooperation, Archives of Civil Engineering, 55 , 3, 287-300, 2009.
M. Kosior-Kazberuk and D. Józwiak-Niedzwiedzka
Industrial utilization of fly ash from various kinds of fuel plays an important role in the environmentally clean and cost effective power production. The primary market for fly ash utilization is as a pozzolanic addition in concrete production. The paper concerns the concretes containing fly ash called Fly Ash from Biomass (FAB) from co-combustion of hard coal and wood biomass (wood chips). Characterization of the fly ash was carried on by means of X-ray diffractometry and E-SEM/EDS analysis. The results of laboratory studies undertaken to evaluate the influence of FAB on concrete resistance to surface scaling due to cyclic freezing and thawing in the presence of NaCl solution were presented. The tests were carried out for concretes containing up to 25% of fly ash related to cement mass. Additionally, the microstructure of air-voids was described. It was concluded that the FAB has significant effect on concrete freeze/thaw durability. The replacement of cement by fly ash from co-combustion progressively transformed the concrete microstructure into less resistant against freeze/thaw cycles and excessive dosage (over 15%) may dangerously increase the scaling.