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Ivan O. Misiruk, Oleksandr I. Timoshenko, Valeriy S. Taran and Igor E. Garkusha

Abstract

The paper discusses plasma methods for surface modification using the non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow anode. This discharge is characterised by low voltage and high values of electron and ion currents. It can be easily excited in vacuum-arc installations that are widely used for coatings deposition. It is shown that such type of discharge may be effectively used for ion pumping, film deposition, ion etching, diffusion saturation of metallic materials, fusion and brazing of metals, and for combined application of above mentioned technologies in a single vacuum cycle.

Open access

Rafal Chodun, Katarzyna Nowakowska-Langier, Krzysztof Zdunek and Sebastian Okrasa

). Magnetron sputtering process control by medium-frequency power supply parameter. Thin Solid Films, 516(14), 4478-4482. 7. Andres, A., Andersson, J., & Ehiasarian, A. (2007). High power impulse magnetron sputtering: Current- -voltage-time characteristics indicate the onset of sustained self-sputtering. J. Appl. Phys., 102(11), 113303-1-11.

Open access

Stéphane Bourg, Andreas Geist and Jerzy Narbutt

Abstract

Recycling of actinides by their separation from spent nuclear fuel, followed by transmutation in fast neutron reactors of Generation IV, is considered the most promising strategy for nuclear waste management. Closing the fuel cycle and burning long-lived actinides allows optimizing the use of natural resources and minimizing the long-term hazard of high-level nuclear waste. Moreover, improving the safety and sustainability of nuclear power worldwide. This paper presents the activities striving to meet these challenges, carried out under the Euratom FP7 collaborative project SACSESS (Safety of Actinide Separation Processes). Emphasis is put on the safety issues of fuel reprocessing and waste storage. Two types of actinide separation processes, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical, are considered, as well as related aspects of material studies, process modeling and the radiolytic stability of solvent extraction systems. Education and training of young researchers in nuclear chemistry is of particular importance for further development of this field.

Open access

Davide Rodrigues, Gabriela Durán-Klie and Sylvie Delpech

Abstract

The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile material and to separate the minor actinides from fission products. The reprocessing involves several chemical steps based on redox and acido-basic properties of the various elements contained in the fuel salt. One challenge is to perform a selective extraction of actinides and lanthanides in spent liquid fuel. Extraction of actinides and lanthanides are successively performed by a reductive extraction in liquid bismuth pool containing metallic lithium as a reductive reagent. The objective of this paper is to give a description of the several steps of the reprocessing retained for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR) concept and to present the initial results obtained for the reductive extraction experiments realized in static conditions by contacting LiF-ThF4-UF4-NdF3 with a lab-made Bi-Li pool and for which extraction efficiencies of 0.7% for neodymium and 14.0% for uranium were measured. It was concluded that in static conditions, the extraction is governed by a kinetic limitation and not by the thermodynamic equilibrium.

Open access

Yashashri Patil, S. Khirwadkar, S. M. Belsare, Rajamannar Swamy, M. S. Khan, S. Tripathi and K. Bhope

Abstract

This paper is focused on various aspects of the development and testing of water cooled divertor PFCs. Divertor PFCs are mainly designed to absorb the heat and particle fluxes outflowing from the core plasma of fusion devices like ITER. The Divertor and First Wall Technology Development Division at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India, is extensively working on development and testing of divertor plasma facing components (PFCs). Tungsten and graphite macro-brush type test mock-ups were produced using vacuum brazing furnace technique and tungsten monoblock type of test mock-ups were obtained by hot radial pressing (HRP) technique. Heat transfer performance of the developed test mock-ups was tested using high heat flux tests with different heat load conditions as well as the surface temperature monitoring using transient infrared thermography technique. Recently we have established the High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF) at IPR with an electron gun EH300V (M/s Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik GmbH, Germany) having maximum power 200 kW. Two tungsten monoblock type test mock-ups were probed using HHFTF. Both of the test mock-ups successfully sustained 316 thermal cycles during high heat flux (HHF) tests. The test mock-ups were non-destructively tested using infrared thermography before and after the HHF tests. In this note we describe the detailed procedure used for testing macro-brush and monoblock type test mock-ups using in-house transient infrared thermography set-up. An acceptance criteria limit was defined for small scale macro-brush type of mock-ups using DTrefmax value and the surface temperature measured during the HHF tests. It is concluded that the heat transfer behavior of a plasma facing component was checked by the HHF tests followed by transient IR thermography. The acceptance criteria DTrefmax limit for a graphite macro-brush mock-up was found to be ~3°C while for a tungsten macro-brush mock-up it was ~5°C.

Open access

Jerzy Cetnar, Grażyna Domańska, Paweł Gajda and Jerzy Janczyszyn

., Heitz, G., Kerveno, M., Kochetkov, A., Laune, B., Lecolley, F. R., Lecouey, J. L., Marie, N., Mellier, F., Merrer, Y., Nuttin, A., Reynet, D., Steckmeyer, J. C., Uyttenhove, W., Vandeplassche, D., Vermeersch, F., & Vittiglio, G. (2009). The GUINEVERE Project for Accelerator Driven System Physics, International Conference GLOBAL 2009 “The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options & Industrial Perspectives”. Paris, France. 4. Mellier, F. (2009). Status of core design. In 2nd EUROTRANS ECATS Progress Meeting, 28-29 January 2009. Aix-en-Provence, France

Open access

Przemysław Stanisz, Jerzy Cetnar and Grażyna Domańska

/NEA 523). 8. Artioli, C., Grasso, G., & Petrovich, C. (2010). A new paradigm for core design aimed at the sustainability of nuclear energy: The solution of the extended equilibrium state. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 37, 915-922. 9. NEA/NSC/DOC18. (2006). Processing of the JEFF-3.1 Cross Section Library into Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Radiation Transport and Criticality Data Library. http://www.nea.fr/abs/html/nea-1768.html. 10. Firestone, R. B., Shirley, V., Baglin, C., Chu, S., & Zipkin, J. (1996). Table of Isotopes 8E. New

Open access

Agata Oszczak and Leon Fuks

. 4. Giavasis, I., & Biliaderis, C. G. (2007). Microbial polysaccharides. In Functional food carbohydrates (pp. 174-176). New York: CRC Press. 5. Se-Know, K. (2015). Handbook of marine biotechnology. Dordrecht: Springer. 6. Khandai, M., Chakraborty, S., Sharma, A., Pattnaik, S., Patra, C. N., Dinda, S. C., & Sen, K. K. (2010). Preparation and evaluation of algino-sericin microspheres: an approach for sustained drug delivery. J. Adv. Pharm. Res., 1, 48-60. 7. Donati, I., & Paoletti, S. (2009). Material properties of

Open access

Jef Ongena

References 1. United Nations. (2013). World population prospects: the 2012 revision. New York: UN. Retrieved from https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/publications/Files/WPP2012_HIGHLIGHTS.pdf. 2. U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2015). International energy statistics. Retrieved from http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm. 3. MacKay, D. J. C. (2009). Sustainable energy - without the hot air. Cambridge, UK: UIT. Retrieved from www. withouthotair.com. 4. Kleemann, M. (1991). Aktuelle

Open access

Przemysław Stanisz, Jerzy Cetnar and Mikołaj Oettingen

References 1. Artioli, C., Grasso, G., & Petrovich, C. (2010). A new paradigm for core design aimed at the sustainability of nuclear energy: the solution of the extended equilibrium state. Ann. Nucl. Energy , 37 , 915–922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2010.03.016 . 2. Oettingen, M., Cetnar, J., & Mirowski, T. (2015). The MCB code for numerical modeling of fourth generation nuclear reactors. Comput. Sci. , 16 (4), 329–350. 3. Stanisz, P., Oettingen, M., & Cetnar, J. (2016). Monte Carlo modeling of Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor in adiabatic