formation of peripheral ( Fig. 2b) or local ( Fig. 2c) ground trough under tank’s bottom of the tank foundation is the penetration of rainwater under its bottom ( Fig. 3 ), which occurs quite often in real tanks. Such penetration of rainwater under the steel bottom can be facilitated by the type of foundation (Type C in Fig. 3 ), improper slope around the tank (Type A in Fig. 3a) or structural errors of the ring foundation and its sealing (Type B in Fig. 3b) . Effects of loosening of the soil at the ring foundation on deformations and emergency risk of tank bottoms
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pull-out test is completely different from that described in their papers. The authors of the presented work attempted to analyze sandstone cracking during a pull-out test made with a self-undercutting anchor, which only has contact with the tested material in the undercut area. These anchors are normally used to anchor various structural elements. The described test is intended for the opposite purpose – to pull out the anchor together with a part of the rock. This is a different approach, because the anchor is designed not to destroy the material in which it is
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restraining the soil in the structure under construction. This means that the shell takes over the earth pressure, similar to a retaining (but flexible) wall. Only when surrounded with backfill, the shell interacting with the soil surcharge becomes an effective structural member, where by the structure can carry considerable external loads, as in Fig. 1 . [ 1 , 3 ]
Loads occurring during the construction of soil-steel structure.
The shell made of corrugated plates is highly rigid, but only as a member of the structure embedded in soil (this is the case
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