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Maciej Sulowski

., vol. 1, 2007, no, 52, p. 97 [42] Sulowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 52, 2007, no. 4, p. 617 [43] Sułowski, M., Faryj, K.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 54, 2009, no. 1, p. 121 [44] Ciaś, A., Sułowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 54, 2009, no. 4, p. 1093 [45] Ciaś, A.: Development and Properties of Fe-Mn-(Mo)-(Cr)-C Sintered Structural Steels. Krakow : AGH - Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne, 2004 [46] Sułowski, M., Ciaś, A.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 56, 2011, no. 2, p

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Florina Violeta Anghelina and Dan Nicolae Ungureanu

. [10] F.V. Anghelina, D.N. Ungureanu, V. Bratu, I.N Popescu, C.O. Rusanescu, Fine structure analysis of biocompatible ceramic materials based hydroxyapatite and metallic biomaterials 316L, Applied Surface Science 285 A, 65-71. [11] B.A. Olei, I. Ştefan, N. Popescu, The Influence of the Sintering Temperature on the Wear Testing for Some Steels Samples Obtained by Powder Metallurgy, Solid State Phenomena 216, 216-221. [12] I.N. Popescu, D. Bojin, I. Carceanu, G. Novac, F.V. Anghelina, Morphological and structural aspects using electronic

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Magdalena Dlapka, Christian Gierl-Mayer, Raquel de Oro Calderon, Herbert Danninger, Sven Bengtsson and Eva Dudrova

Abstract

Nitrogen is usually regarded as an inert sintering atmosphere for PM steels; however, this cannot be taken for granted in particular for steels alloyed with nitride forming elements. Among those elements, chromium has become more and more important as an alloying element in sintered low alloy structural steels in the last decade due to the moderate alloying cost and the excellent mechanical properties obtainable, in particular when sinter hardening is applied. The high affinity of Cr to oxygen and the possible ways to overcome related problems have been the subject of numerous studies, while the fact that chromium is also a fairly strong nitride forming element has largely been neglected at least for low alloy steel grades, although frequently used materials like steels from Cr and Cr-Mo prealloyed powders are commonly sintered in atmospheres consisting mainly of nitrogen.

In the present study, nitrogen pickup during sintering at different temperatures and for varying times has been studied for Cr-Mo prealloyed steel grades as well as for unalloyed carbon steel. Also the effect of the cooling rate and its influence on the properties, of the microstructure and the composition have been investigated. It showed that the main nitrogen uptake occurs not during isothermal sintering but rather during cooling. It could be demonstrated that a critical temperature range exists within which the investigated CrM-based steel is particularly sensitive to nitrogen pickup.

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Hiwa Mohammad Qadr and Ari Maghdid Hamad

REFERENCES [1] Smith, R., Fast reactor progress—slow but sure, Progress in Nuclear Energy. 1987, vol. 20, 2, pp. 71-88. [2] Kittel, J., Frost, B., Mustelier, J., Bagley, K., Crittenden, G., and Van Dievoet, J., History of fast reactor fuel development, Journal of nuclear materials. 1993, vol. 204, pp. 1-13. [3] Klueh, R., and Nelson, A., Ferritic/martensitic steels for next-generation reactors, Journal of Nuclear Materials. 2007, vol. 371, 1-3, pp. 37-52. [4] Raj, B., and Vijayalakshmi, M., Ferritic steels and advanced ferritic

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R. Shvab, M. V. Sundaram, H. Karlsson, D. Chasoglou, S. Berg, E. Hryha and L. Nyborg

Delubrication and Sintering of Chromium-alloyed Powder Metallurgy Steels”, PhD Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2015. [7] Berg S.: Adv. Powder. Metall. Part. Mater., vol. 5, 2001, p. 5. [8] Hryha E., Dudrova E., Bengtsson S.: Powder Metall., vol. 5, 2007, p. 3. [9] Delarbre P., Schoppa A., Hornof B.: Met. Powder Rep., vol. 71, 2016, p. 344. [10] Torralba J. M., Esteban L., Bernardo E., Campos M.: Powder Metall., vol. 57, 2014, p. 357. [11] Mousavinasab S., Blais C.: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 667, 2016, p. 444

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Elena Valentina Stoian, Maria Cristiana Enescu, Vasile Bratu, Carmen Otilia Rusanescu and Florina Violeta Anghelina

-alloying elements on physical and structural characteristics of the some steel destined for manufacturing the oil pipes. Romanian Reports in Physics. Vol. 68. No. 1. P. 278–293. 2016. ISSN: 1221-1451; eISSN: 1841-8759. [19] F.V.Anghelina. Correlation Between Primary Recrystallization Texture And Goss Texture For The Electrotechnical Steel. Magazine JOSA-Journal of Science and Arts. Nr. 1 /2014. ISSN 1844-9581. Ed. Bibliotheca.Targoviste. [20] C. O. Rusănescu. M. Rusănescu - The influence of the residual copper on the pipes steel hot plasticity according to

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M. Vattur Sundaram, R. Shvab, S. Millot, E. Hryha and L. Nyborg

., vol. 2, 2002, p. 125 [8] Hryha, E., Dudrova, E., Bengtsson, S.: Powder Metall., vol. 51, 2008, p. 340 [9] Vattur Sundaram, M. et.al: Powder Metall. Prog., vol. 14, 2014, p. 85 [10] Hryha, E., Nyborg, L.: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, vol. 45, 2014, p. 1736 [11] Karamchedu, S.: Ph.D. Thesis. Chalmers University of Technology, 2015 [12] Vattur Sundaram, M. et.al In: Proc. World PM 2016-Steel Sintering, 2016

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Vasile Bratu and Ileana Nicoleta Popescu

References [2] B.Yordanov, Heat Treatment of Tool Steel X210CR12 After Modification With Nanodispersed Si3N4 , Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 46, 4 ( 2011), 423-426. [3] FV Anghelina, V Bratu, IN Popescu, Estimating the stacking faults of high alloyed steels, The Scientific Bulletin of Valahia University 8(11) (2013), 7-11. [4] I.N. Popescu, D Bojin, I. Carceanu, G. Novac, F.V. Anghelina, Morphological And Structural Aspects Using Electronic Microscopy And Image Analysis Of Iron

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M. Tenerowicz-Zaba, M. Kupkova, M. Kabatova, E. Dudrova, M. Dzupon and M. Sulowski

., Zhang, J.: Journal of American Ceramic Society, vol. 89, 2006, no. 2, p. 494 [7] Zhaohui, Z., Fuchi, W., Lin, W.: Materials Letters, vol. 62, 2008, no. 24, p. 3987 [8] Hebda, M.: Czasopismo Techniczne, z. 11, Mechanika, z. 6-M, 2012, no. 11, p. 47 [9] Cias, A.: Development and Properties of Fe-Mn-(Mo)-(Cr)-C Sintered Structural Steels. AGH – Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne, 2004 [10] Dudrova, E., Kabatova, M. In: Fractography – Principles and Application, Workshop. March 23–25, 2015, Košice, Slovakia

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Elena Valentina Stoian, Vasile Bratu, Cristiana Maria Enescu and Carmen Otilia Rusanescu

References [1] O. Florea s.a., Teoria Proceselor Metalurgice, Ediţia a-2-a, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică Bucureşti, 1984. [2] C.O. Rusănescu, M. Rusănescu, F.V. Anghelina, V Bratu, The influence of the micro-alloying elements on physical and structural characteristics of the some steel destined for manufacturing the oil pipes, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol.68,no.1, 278-293, 2016 [3] J. H. Chesters, Refractories for iron & steelmaking, The Metals Society, London 1974, pp. 406-407. [4] V