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Erkay Özgör and Nevin Keskin

Abstract

Honey bee colonies are often infected with Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae which cause adult honey bee disease called nosemosis. All honey bee colony members can be infected with these species. In addition, it is claimed to be the main cause of honey bee winter losses in many countries. Nosema spores are expected to resistant the environmental conditions and their infectivity continues for a long time because of long-term durability of fungal spores. In this study, the viability of Nosema spores were investigated in terms of storage situations under laboratory conditions. Honey bee samples that were collected from apiaries in 2011 were investigated to detect the presence of Nosema species with real-time PCR amplification studies. After determination of Nosema species, each sample was divided in two groups. One of these groups was used to find Nosema spore concentration. Nosema solutions were divided and stored at both -20°C and +4°C. The spore concentration was measured every year in the period 2011-2015. Other group of honey bee samples was also stored at -20°C and every year was used for Nosema spore counting. Furthermore, it was examined the infectivity of Nosema spores with sugar solutions which obtained each sample using cage experiment techniques. According to results, when we compare the solutions annually, there is no change at Nosema spore concentration of the solution in -20°C and honeybee samples in -20°C. But reduction was seen at Nosema spore concentration of the solution in +4°C. Nosema spore infectivity tests revealed that infectivity of Nosema spores has not changed significantly between 2011 and 2015. This is the first time mixed Nosema spores found more infective than one-type spore after prolonged exposure to different conditions.

Open access

Harikrishna Naik Lavudi, Seshagirirao Kottapalli and Francisco M. Goycoolea

References 1. Dey PM. Biochemistry of plant galactomannans, Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry 1978 35: 341-376. 2. Bailey RW, Harborne JB, Boulter D, Turner BL. Polysaccharides in the Leguminosae. In: Herborne JB, Boulter D, Turner BL. (ed.), Chemotaxonomy of the Leguminosae. Academic press, London 1971; pp. 503-541. 3. Reid JSG, Dey PM, Dixon RA. Galactomannans in Biochemistry of storage Carbohydrates in Green Plants. In: P.M. Dey and R.A. Dixon, (ed.) Academic press, London. 1985; pp. 265

Open access

Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin

decreases as the fluid covers distance in the channels and diffuses to the bottom cavity. In Figure 12 , the velocity at the upper channel is higher where the drug is pumped in from the inlet. From the velocity profile, it is seen that velocity is lower at the side walls due to collision of fluid with boundaries. As the drug travels into lower channels, the velocity is reduced. As in comparison for two simulation designs, it was observed that although the second device provides explicit storage as a small cavity for cultured cells under the channels but it still

Open access

Muhammad Salman Khan, Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh and Ahmet Tekin

dopamine electrochemistry but also significantly increased the storage stability of the transducers. Apart from the CV analysis measurements, an impedance spectroscopic study of the interaction between thiol-modified Au electrodes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was presented first in 2008 by Heiskanen et al . [ 7 ], in which monolayer coverage was reached after 20-28 h of cultivation, and was observed as 15 percent decrease in the real capacitance of the system by cysteamine-modified Au microelectrodes techniques. It was also seen that after an addition of Saccharomyces