-statistics.html 6. Department of Industry, Ministry of Industry, Thailand. The listsof registered rice mills [Internet] 2006[cited 2006 Nov 18]. Available from: http://www.diw.go.th/diw_web/html/versionthai/laws/lawmenu2.asp 7. Tantivirasut P. Traditional and modern rice mill. Kasikorn J. 1998; 6:551-9 [in Thai]. 8. Soponraonnarit S, Amatachaya P, Prachayawarakorn S, NathakaranakuleA, Inchan S.Field trial of in-store paddy drying and storage. The Kasetsart Journal (Social science). 1997; 1:86-100. 9. Tumambing JA. Current drying
Pornthip Yenjai, Naesinee Chaiear, Lertchai Charerntanyarak and Mallika Boonmee
Wichit Thaveekarn, Sunchai Payungporn, Narumol Pakmanee, Sunutcha Suntrarachun, Suchitra Khunsap and Suthidee Petsong
strain of M . bovis . Different methods of passage and storage have led to many substrains showing the phenotype. Such natural diversification, e.g. heterogeneity on duplication of the DU2 region in the BCG Danish substrains, commonly occurs in BCG substrains and can be increased by continuous passage without appropriate cloning because of natural mutations and selective pressure in culture media [ 11 , 12 ]. BCG Tokyo 172 is one of 4 WHO vaccine reference strains [ 13 , 14 ]. The Japanese BCG strain exhibits good protective efficacy with a low rate of unfavorable
Manel Araoud, Fadoua Neffeti, Wahiba Douki, Abderraouf Kenani and Mohamed Fadhel Najjar
Background: Human plasma paraoxonase1 (PON1) is an esterase catalyzing the hydrolysis of organophosphorus pesticides and other xenobiotics. The aims of this study were to develop a rapid method to determinate PON1 activity, evaluate some interference, and study the influence of storage temperature on PON1 activity assay.
Methods: Measurement of PON1 activity was performed for 369 samples by measuring the hydrolysis of paraoxon using a spectrophotometric method adapted on konelab 30 ⃞.
Results: The developed method facilitates the determination of PON1 activity at the rate of more than 200 samples per hour, and it is linear between 2 and 900 IU/L. Intra and inter-assay imprecision coefficients of variation were 2% and 5% respectively. PON1 activity in serum was correlated with those in heparinized plasma (r = 0.994, p < 0.001) and in plasma/EDTA (r = 0.962, p < 0.001). The mean inhibition of the PON1 activity was, by EDTA/K3, 41 ± 10 %. There was not significant PON1 activity variation after 40 days of storage at -20°C or at +4 ⃞ C. There were no substantial interferences from haemoglobin, jaundice and hyperlipidemia.
Conclusion: The developed method is reliable, reproducible, and suitable. It can also be performed on heparinized plasma for the determination of PON1 activity. Hence, it may be useful for assaying PON1 activity in several intoxications such as organophosphorus, sarin, and soman nerve agents.
Titpawan Nakpheng, Somchai Sawatdee, Khemmarat Buaking and Teerapol Srichana
Background: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a naturally occurring hormone that controls sex hormones in both men and women. In general, LHRH is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract due to its large molecular size, high polarity, and loss from enzymatic degradation.
Objective: Prepare and develop LHRH in a dry power formulation with stability and biological activity.
Methods: Mannitol (M) and glycine (G) were chosen as ingredients to stabilize and protect LHRH during the freeze drying processes and during storage. The physicochemical properties of LHRH dry powders were examined by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, and photon correlation spectroscopy. The release of LHRH from the dry powder was carried out in dissolution apparatus. In addition, a rat model was employed to study the bioactivity of LHRH in the dry powder form.
Results: The LHRH dry powder formulations using M and G in the ratios of 6:4 and 7:3 were more stable than other formulations. LHRH colloids containing M:G showed no aggregation after storage at 4°C for one month. The concentration of LHRH in the dry powder form was more stable than that of LHRH in solution form. All the LHRH dry powder formulations were instantly dissolved within 10 seconds in an aqueous medium. After the LHRH dry powder (13 mg) was reconstituted and administered intraperitoneally to male rats during a one-month period, the testosterone level in the plasma was significantly decreased compared with an untreated group (15.0±1.0 ng/mL, 15.0±1.0 ng/mL and 20.0±2.0 ng/mL for LHRH containing M:G; 6:4, 7:3, and 8:2, respectively, compared to the control of 35±2 ng/mL, p<0.05).
Conclusion: The LHRH dry powder formulations had good physicochemical properties and bioactivity.
Jittida Shoosanglertwijit, Sanae Kaewnopparat, Benjawan Yongmaitreesakul, Sarinthip Pattayananthavej and Nattha Kaewnopparat
Background: Furosemide is a potent diuretic used in treatment of oedematous states associated with cardiac, renal, and hepatic failure and the treatment of hypertension. In Thailand, no liquid formulation of furosemide is commercially available for pediatric administration and for adult who cannot swallow furosemide tablets.
Objective: Prepare extemporaneous furosemide suspensions from commercial furosemide tablets using two compounded suspending vehicles, and determine the physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of these preparations.
Methods: Two formulations of extemporaneous furosemide suspensions were prepared from commercially available furosemide 40-mg tablets using two compounded suspending vehicles. The final concentration of furosemide in each formulation was 2 mg/mL. Three samples of each formulation were stored in glass bottles protected from light, and kept at three controlled temperature, 4±2°C, room temperature (30±2°C), and 45°C. A sample was removed from each bottle immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 30, 45, and 60 days. The stability-indicating highperformance liquid chromatography was used to analyze for furosemide. The pH was measured. The physical and microbiological properties of these formulations were evaluated after storage for two months. The stability of furosemide suspensions was determined by calculating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining on each test day. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration.
Results: At least 93% of the initial furosemide concentration remained in both compounded furosemide suspensions for up to 60 days. There were no substantial changes in the appearance (color and consistency) or odor of both formulations. The pH values of both formulations kept at 4±2°C increased slightly, while the pH values of both formulations kept at 45±2°C decreased significantly compared with the initial pH value of both formulations. Both formulations maintained microbiologic stability for 60 days.
Conclusion: Extemporaneously compounded furosemide suspensions, 2 mg/mL, were stable for at least 60 days when stored in glass bottles protected from light at three controlled temperatures. These compounded furosemide suspensions are better suited for administration to children and adults who cannot swallow furosemide tablets. They may provide an alternative in situations where the marketed suspension is unavailable.
Yuwares Sittichanbuncha, Chalermpon Chairat and Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
trial). Vaccine. 1998; 16: 1559-62. 13. Khawplod P, Tantawichien T, Wilde H, Limusanno S, Tantawichien T, Saikasem A, et al. Use of rabies vaccine after reconstitution and storage. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34:404-6. 14. Khawplod P, Wilde H, Tantawichien T, Limusanno S, Tantawichien T, Mitmoonpitak C, et al. Potency, sterility and immunogenicity of rabies tissue culture vaccine after reconstituted refrigerated storage for one week. Vaccine. 2002; 20:2240-2 15. Kamoltham T, Khawplod P, Wilde H. Rabies intradermal post
Anucha Thatrimontrichai and Waricha Janjindamai
. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009; 40: 1080-6. 20. Hamosh M, Henderson TR, Ellis LA, Mao JI, Hamosh P. Digestive enzymes in human milk: stability at suboptimal storage temperatures. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1997; 24:38-43. 21. Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP, De Curtis M, Darmaun D, Decsi T, et al. Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010; 50
Asada Leelahavanichkul, Wiwat Chancharoenthana and Somchai Eiam-Ong
Dear JW Takahashi Y Ito S et al Chloroquine and inhibition of Toll-like receptor 9 protect from sepsis-induced acute kidney injury Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2008 294 F1050 8 16 Zhou H, Yuen PS, Pisitkun T, Gonzales PA, Yasuda H, Dear JW, et al. Collection, storage, preservation, and normalization of human urinary exosomes for biomarker discovery. Kidney Int. 2006; 69:1471–6. 10.1038/sj.ki.5000273 Zhou H Yuen PS Pisitkun T Gonzales PA Yasuda H Dear JW et al Collection, storage, preservation, and normalization of human
Jindaratn Chaipokam, Thanyaphong Na Nakorn and Rojnuckarin Ponlapat
The criterion standard, or index test, for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the absence of stainable bone marrow iron. In addition, serum ferritin is a reliable marker for the diagnosis of IDA and the best marker representing iron storage in bone marrow [ 1 , 2 ]. In clinical practice, serum ferritin is helpful for diagnosis of IDA with high specificity and has positive predictive value [ 3 , 4 ]. However, these tests are not readily available in many hospitals in Thailand because they are not routine. Furthermore, they require a longer
Sopon Pornkunwilai, Wichit Nosoongnoen, Chutima Jantarat, Suttipong Wachrasindhu and Vichit Supornsilchai
, Weinberg CR, Hoppin JA, Longnecker MP, Wilcox AJ. Within-person variability in urinary bisphenol a concentrations: measurements specimens after long-term frozen storage. Environ Res. 2009; 109:734-7. 10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.004 Nepomnaschy PA Baird DD Weinberg CR Hoppin JA Longnecker MP Wilcox AJ Within-person variability in urinary bisphenol a concentrations: measurements specimens after long-term frozen storage Environ Res 2009 109 734 7 44 Valentin J. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. A report of age- and