. Environ Modelling & Software. 2008;23. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2007.06.003.  Fu G, Khu S, Butler D. Optimal distribution and control of storage tank to mitigate the impact of new developments on receiving water quality. J of Environ Eng. 2010;136. http://ascelibrary.org/doi/ abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29EE.1943-7870.0000161.  Stec A, Słyś D. Effect of development of the town of Przemysl on operation of its sewerage system. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2013;2:381-396. DOI: 10.2478/eces-2013-0028.  Słyś D, Dziopak J. Development of mathematical model for sewage pumping
Agnieszka Stec and Daniel Słyś
Marta Marszałek, Zygmunt Kowalski and Agnieszka Makara
D, Gusmão M, Surgy S, Cabral F. Assessment of CO 2 emissions during acidification, storage, and after incorporation to soil of pig slurry. Proceedings of 14 th RAMIRAN Conference 13-15 September 2010. Lisboa, Portugal, 2010:276-279. http://ramiran.uvlf.sk/ramiran2010/docs/Ramiran2010_0314_final.pdf .  Fangueiro D, Hjorth M, Gioelli F. J Environ Manage. 2015;149:46-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.10.001.  Regueiro I, Coutinho J, Fangueiro D. J Clean Prod. 2016;131:296-307. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.032.  Govere EM, Tonegawa M
Małgorzata Kijowska-Strugała, Łukasz Wiejaczka and Rafał Kozłowski
References  Palmer RW, O'Keeffe JH. Hydrobiologia. 1990;202:71-83. DOI: 10.1007/BF02208128.  Dumnicka E, Kasza H, Kownacki A, Krzyżanek E, Kuflikowski T. Hydrobiologia.1988;169:183-191. DOI: 10.1007/BF00007309.  Czamara W, Czamara A, Wiatkowski M. The use of pre-dams with plant filters to improve water quality in storage reservoirs. Archives Environ Protect. 2008;34:79-89. www.researchgate.net/publication/283137175_The_use_of_pre-dams_with_plant_filters_to_improve_water_quality_in_storage
Tadeusz Rodziewicz, Aleksander Zaremba and Maria Wacławek
In this paper possibilities and limits of use of solar energy (like the best efficiencies of PV cells, world records and ‘notable exceptions’) were shown. Also some new ideas and concepts in photovoltaics (like new photovoltaic power plants or energy storage) were presented. Additionally authors try to predict development of solar power industry.
Chi Xu, Wen-Zhi Zeng, Jing-Wei Wu and Jie-Sheng Huang
Intermittent irrigation has attracted much attention as a water-saving technology in arid and semi-arid regions. For understanding the effect of intermittent irrigation on water and solute storage varied from irrigation amount per time (IRA), irrigation application frequency (IRAF), irrigation intervals (IRI) and even soil texture (ST), intermittent irrigation experiment was carried out in 33 micro-plots in Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment results were used for the calibration and validation of HYDRUS-1D software. Then 3 ST (silty clay loam, silty loam, and silty clay), 5 IRA (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm), 4 IRAF (2, 3, 4, and 5 times) and 4 IRI (1, 2, 3, and 4 days) were combined and total 240 scenarios were simulated by HYDRUS-1D. Analysis of variance (ANVOA) of simulated results indicated that ST, IRA, and IRAF had significant effect on salt and nitrate nitrogen (NO3 −-N) storage of 0-40 cm depth soil in intermittent irrigation while only ST affected soil water storage obviously. Furthermore, salt leaching percentage (SLP) and water use efficiency (WUE) of 0-40 cm depth were calculated and statistical prediction models for SLP were established based on the ANOVA using multiple regression analysis in each soil texture. Then constraint conditions of soil water storage (around field capacity), salt storage (smaller than 168 mg·cm−2), WUE (as large as possible) in 0-40 cm depth and total irrigation water amount (less than 25 cm) were proposed to find out the optimal intermittent irrigation strategies. Before sowing, the optimal irrigation strategy for silty clay loam soil was 6 cm IRA, 3 times IRAF, and 2 days IRI respectively. For silty loam and silty clay soils, IRA, IRAF, and IRI were 8 cm, 3 times, and 2 days respectively.
The decrease of seed quality during storage is strongly associated with damage caused by free radicals. Some compounds of natural origin, known due to their antioxidative and antifungal properties, may be potentially used in organic production for seed treatment as an alternative to pesticides. The aim of the experiment was to study an ability of hydrogen peroxide and organic acid to improve germination, vigour and health of non-deteriorated and deteriorated zinnia seeds. Two seed samples, cv. Illumination and Orys, varying in initial infestation with fungi were tested. For deterioration seeds were kept at 30°C and 80% RH for 30 days. Seed quality tests were performed before and after deterioration for controls and seeds soaked in 3.0% hydrogen peroxide solution and in 1.0 and 5.0% solutions of ascorbic and lactic acids for 10, 30 and 60 min. The controls were untreated seeds, seeds soaked in 0.2% solution of Kaptan zawiesinowy 50 WP for 30 min and seeds soaked in distilled water for 10, 30 and 60 min. Treating zinnia seeds with organic acids more significantly affected seed germination and health after deterioration than before, and improvement of germination capacity was usually correlated with decrease of the percentage of abnormal diseased seedlings. Deterioration had no influence on mean germination time, whereas in particular cases treating seeds with hydrogen peroxide and organic acids negatively affected this parameter. After deterioration regardless of treatment increased number of seeds free from fungi. Lactic acid followed by hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid effectively limited growth of A. alternata, A. zinnia and Fusarium spp. on zinnia seeds, however at higher concentration negatively affected seed germination and vigour. Moreover, treating seeds with hydrogen peroxide and organic acids many a time increased seeds infestation with B. cinerea.
Volodymyr Patyka, Natalia Buletsa, Lidiya Pasichnyk, Natalia Zhitkevich, Antonina Kalinichenko, Tatiyana Gnatiuk and Lyudmyla Butsenko
The data concerning the effects of pesticides of different nature on the phytopathogenic bacteria was examined and summarized. Without extensive research on the mechanisms of interaction between pathogenic bacteria and pesticides in the literature review a similar message about microorganisms of soil and phyllosphere are included. The bacteria can be suppressed permanently by pesticides with a mechanism of action that universally affects biological processes in living systems. Long-term storage, ease of use and fast visible effect are the advantages of synthetic pesticides remedies. But chemical pollution, shifts in the balance of ecosystems, unpredictable effects of chemical pesticides on non-target objects are the drawbacks. Stimulation of resistance response in plants is unifying factor for all types of biopesticides. This is realized through localization of the pathogen during infection, blocking its further penetration, distribution and reproduction. The results of the study of effects of plant protection products on the phytopathogenic bacteria of main crops are described. Among all tested pesticides, thiocarbamate fungicides demonstrated significant inhibitory action on phytopathogens, but their effect may be neutralized by other constituents of multicomponent preparations. Triazole fungicides affect the causative agents of bacterioses of crops at a dose of more than 1% of the active substance in the nutrient medium. Insecticides and herbicides have little or no effect on phytopathogenic bacteria; however they can enhance morphological dissociations of some Pseudomonas strains, thereby increasing their ability to survive. The disadvantage of many biopesticides against phytopathogenic microorganisms is the difference between their efficacy in vitro and in vivo that is why the desired result is not achieved in field condition. In addition, biological pesticides often lose their activity causing the problem of constant search for new active antagonists. The fact that the sensitivity of phytopathogenic bacteria to pesticides is strain-dependent should be considered in practice, particularly, assessment of the antibacterial action of various preparations should not be limited to a single bacterial strain.
Elka Kraleva, Vencislav Karamfilov and Georgi Hibaum
Determination of PAH in the Black Sea Water by GC/MS Following Preconcentration with Solid-Phase Extraction
Determination of PAHs in marine coastal waters has to be carried out with great care to avoid serious losses occurring during the sampling and storage stage. This is due to the hydrophobic properties of PAHs, and their tendency to be adsorbed to surfaces they are in contact with, including suspended particulate matter. The best technique to separate PAHs is gas chromatography with mass spectrometer. Because of low concentration levels to be quantified in water samples, an enrichment step is needed before chromatographic analysis. For PAHs, several preconcentration techniques have been used, but the most concentration technique is solid-phase extraction (SPE). The main objective of this work is to adapt and implement a relatively simple and rapid method for gas chromatographic determination of individual PAHs in samples of coastal and running waters. The present work analyses the yield and precision of extraction of PAHs by solid phase extraction with using different sorbents for SPE (Bond Elut: C18 and Plexa SPE discs), the two most common methods used for aqueous samples.
Fuels, inclusive of those produced with the use of wastes, must usually be stored before their combustion or co-combustion in industrial processes. When stored outside, the fuels are exposed to adverse atmospheric impacts. The fuel quality may get worse then and fuel components which may be environmentally harmful may be leached out as well. The paper presents the assessment of potential environmental threads which result from the storage of fuels which have been produced with the use of municipal sewage sludge and other components, ie fuel made of the sewage sludge and coal slurry (PBS fuel), fuel made of the sewage sludge and meat-and-bone meal (PBM fuel), and that obtained with the use of the sewage sludge and sawdust (PBT fuel). Leachability of environmentally harmful components was studied, with special attention paid to heavy metals. Four methods were employed to evaluate the pollutant leachability levels; different environmental conditions were simulated in those methods. The studies and analyses demonstrated that the temporary surface dumping of PBS, PBM and PBT fuels was safe from the viewpoint of leaching of the harmful component to soil and/or water courses.
The influence of the preparation method of samples on the zinc ions sorption parameters in Spirogyra sp. algae was analysed. The Zn2+ sorption process from the salt solutions of this analyte was carried out in static conditions. The carried out analyses results show that the method of algae samples preparation for analyses (thermal drying, freeze drying, samples conditioning in demineralised water) and storage period influence their sorption capacity. On the basis of the carried out research of the metal sorption kinetics in live and prepared algae samples, it was found that the equilibrium is achieved after approximately 30 min. In the experiment conditions, 56% of metals are sorbed in live algae during the first 15 min. Approximately 17 and 65% of zinc ions present in the dilution accumulated in thermally dried and freeze dried algae samples respectively after 30 min of the process. It was confirmed that conditioning of the algae samples in demineralised water, prior to the sorption process, increases its efficiency. In order to define sorption capacity of freeze dried Spirogyra sp. algae, the Langmuir isotherm model was applied. It was found out that algae absorb heavy metals in proportion to their content in a solution, in which they were immersed. The sorption capacity of freeze dried Spirogyra sp. algae and zinc, defined with the use of the Langmuir isotherm, shows considerable imprecise result. Evident influence of hydrogen cations on zinc concentrations in algae and in the solution in the state of equilibrium was found out.