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Maciej Sobótka

References [1] MACHELSKI C., Modelling of soil-steel bridge structures, (in Polish), DWE, Wrocław, 2008. [2] MACHELSKI C., ANTONISZYN G., MICHALSKI B., Live load effects on a soil-steel bridge founded on elastic supports, Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica, 2006, 28, 2-4, 65-82. [3] ANTONISZYN G., Is the road pavement structural element of the bridge?, Geoengineering: roads, bridges, tunnels, (in Polish), 2009, 3, 76-79. [4] JANUSZ L., MADAJ A., Engineering structures made form corrugated plates

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Marek Gawor

position in the axis of one of the tubes to the axis of the other tube. The time of moving the thermometer measured using appropriately set contacts was ~20 ms. For the experiment, carbon dioxide and argon were selected (CO 2 as the gas sorbed on coal). These gases have similar molecular weights of 44 and 40, respectively. Argon sorption on hard coal was found to be low compared to the sorption of carbon dioxide. The gas from the bottle flowed through a reducer and a copper coil placed in water, and then, it flowed into the atmosphere through a steel tube. The usage/flow

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Mohammed Beghoul and Rafik Demagh

equivalent stiffness of the stiffest neighboring zone. In the contrary, for the resistance parameters, we take those of the least-resistant material, possibly reduced in case of smooth interface (case of soil–steel friction, for example). It is important to note that interfaces are one sided in FLAC-3D; this differs from the formulation of two-sided interfaces in FLAC-2D. 3.3 Initial conditions and material properties The initial distribution of vertical effective stress and horizontal effective stress are controlled by the given soil unit weight and the