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Titanium nitride coatings synthesized by IPD method with eliminated current oscillations

nitrogen atmosphere with the total number of plasma impulses equal to 500 (SEM investigations), 5000 (XRD investigations and wear tests). The coatings were deposited on silicon substrates and 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm high-speed steel insert cutting edges. The discharge voltage of the capacitor bank of 150 µF was equal to 3 kV and the discharge frequency was equal 1 Hz. During the synthesis process, the impulse valve opening time was about 100 ms. Starting pressure was of the order of 10 −4 Pa. During the pulse valve work, the pressure was changing dynamically from 10 −4 Pa

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Formation of the regularly arranged tubular pores during electrophoretic deposition

solutions, such as carboxylic acid with different numbers of methyl groups, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid were used as solvents with designed concentrations. The solid content in the suspension was set as 15 wt.%. The suspension was magnetically stirred for 2 hours followed by 15 min ultrasonic treatment. The zeta potential of each suspension was measured by a zeta potential instrument (JS94H). The electrophoretic deposition was conducted using a continuous DC power source (DYY-6D, Liuyi Instrument Plant, Beijing) with stainless steel as electrodes. No obvious

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VO2(B) conversion to VO2(A) and VO2(M) and their oxidation resistance and optical switching properties

room temperature to obtain a brown liquid ([VO(O 2 ) 2 ] - solution), as shown in equation 1 : (1) V 2 O 5 + 4 H 2 O 2 → 2 [ V O ( O 2 ) 2 ] − + 3 H 2 O + 2 H + $$\rm V_2O_5+4H_2O_2\rightarrow 2[VO(O_2)2]^{-}+3H_2O+2H^+$$ After the solution achieved good homogeneity, the mixture was transferred into a 50 mL Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave, then sealed and maintained at 180 °C for 48 h. When the reaction was finished, the blue-black precipitates were

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Structural and morphological analysis of barium cerate electrolyte for SOFC application

temperatures of the fuel cell must be reduced to intermediate temperatures (between 500 °C to 700 °C) by choosing a suitable alternative electrolyte with high ionic conduction. Lowering the operating temperatures of electrolyte will ultimately extend the lifetime of fuel cells and the replacement of expensive ceramic interconnects by stainless steel may be possible for lower temperatures operation [ 2 ]. The oxygen-ion conducting electrolytes are a good choice to achieve high ionic conductivity in solid ceramics operated at lower temperatures. For example, doped ceria, doped

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Structural and electrochemical investigation of waste newspaper based electrodes for supercapacitor applications

in the carbon matrix. In the chemical activation process, 50 g of the PCC was mixed with 250 g of aqueous solution containing 85 % H3PO4 by weight. The chemical activator and PCC were homogeneously mixed at 85 °C for 4 h. After mixing, the PCC slurry was dried under vacuum at 110 °C for 24 h. The resulting samples were then activated in a vertical cylindrical furnace at a flow rate of 5 °C/min. Then, it was labelled as activated waste newspaper (AWNP). This was followed by heating at three different temperatures of 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C at a heating rate of 5

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The impact of medium frequency pulsed magnetron discharge power on the single probe Langmuir measurements and resulted plasma parameters

long tip holder was designed similarly to the one presented in [ 33 , 43 , 44 ]. The two co-axial pipes (inner made of ceramics, outer made of stainless steel) were used to form re-entrant structure in such a way that the sputtered material could not short circuit the probe tip to the holder surface. The outer radius of the tip holder was of R holder = 1.25 mm. The probe tip was oriented perpendicular to the target surface to minimize its coverage with sputtered atoms [ 40 - 42 ]. The target to probe distance was 60 mm. As the distance of the probe to cathode

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