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Negm A.M., Abdel-Aal G.M., Habib A.A., Owais T
prediction models for time-dependent processes are paramount for the construction of new and the maintenance of existing structures within the frameworks of life cycle cost analyses and sustainability. In order to accurately identify, assess and predict a structural system’s performance and full safety potential, all influences that a real structure is likely to face have to be captured accurately. For concrete, these are (mildly reinforced as well as prestressed, depending on the type of structure), among others, aging, cracking, shrinkage, creep, steel relaxation
first rainfall simulation event, a period of approximately 48 hours.
On the same day that slurry was applied, the sub-plots were hydrologically isolated from overland and shallow sub-surface flow by inserting stainless steel surrounds into the soil along the sides and across the up-slope end of each plot to a depth of 0.05 m.
Rainfall simulations were carried out using the same methodology as described in a number of similar studies: Brennan et al . (2011) , O’Rourke et al . (2012) , McConnell et al . (2013 a , b ), Doody et al
V. Nagarajappa, S.N. Battula, S. Arora and L.N. Naik
10–12 h and then churned into butter using a domestic mixer (National, Bengaluru, India). The butter was washed with cold water to remove excess buttermilk and was heated with continuous stirring in a stainless steel container. The heating was adjusted so that the temperature rose very slowly and did not exceed 100°C. Finally, the clarified fat was filtered using Whatman Grade No. 4 filter paper to obtain butteroil with a moisture content of <0.3%.
Preparation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion
DATEM were used as an emulsifier and butteroil was used as a source
W. Burchill, G.J. Lanigan, P.J. Forrestal, F. Reville, T. Misselbrook and K.G. Richards
used to measure NH 3 volatilisation. Each wind tunnel unit consisted of (i) a canopy (0.5 m × 2 m) made of polycarbonate, (ii) a galvanised sheet steel duct and (iii) a control box. The wind tunnel canopy was placed over each lysimeter immediately after urea application and it stayed in place until the end of the experiment. Wind speed through the wind tunnels was set at 1 m/s (air flow rate of 0.229 m 3 /s), which was chosen to mimic atmospheric wind speed above the soil surface. Air entering and leaving the wind tunnel canopy was sampled and pumped through two
Raimondo Gallo, Giovanni Carabin, Renato Vidoni, Pasqualina Sacco and Fabrizio Mazzetto
, hook, inhaul, and unhook) as well. Meanwhile, the load cell and the inclinometer were placed between the hook and the chokers and on the choker, respectively. These sensors were used to measure the pulling force applied by the carriage and the consequent inclination of the steel wire in case of dragging during the inhaul phase. The aim of this application is to have an automatic and fast estimation about the hauled weights without the need of any manual measurement for the operator during the hooking phases. For this computation, two assumptions were necessary. The
Karl Schedle, Elke Humer, Rudolf Leitgeb, Gertrude Freudenberger, Katharina Monika Ebner and Christiane Schwarz
digestion, as described by Jagger et al. (1992) . An adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter (IKA-C400, Staufen, Germany) was used to determine the gross energy (GE). Broiler chickens’ BW and feed consumption were evaluated per pen on days 1, 14, 28, and 36. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated for the starter, grower, finisher, and the whole fattening period.
On days 32 and 33 of fattening, clean excreta (free from feathers and feed) were collected twice daily from steel liners placed in the collection