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Noninvasive Markers of Improvement of Liver Steatosis Achieved by Weight Reduction in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

of steatohepatitis in mice. J Inflamm (Lond). 2011; 8:8. 9. PARK SH, KIM BI, KIM SH, KIM HJ, PARK DI, CHO YK, SUNG IK, SOHN CI, KIM H, KEUM DK, KIM HD, PARK JH, KANG JH, JEON WK. Body fat distribution and insulin resistance: beyond obesity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among overweight men. J Am Coll Nutr 2007; 26:321-326. 10. PARK BJ, KIM YJ, KIM DH, KIM W, JUNG YJ, YOON JH, KIM CY, CHO YM, KIM SH, LEE KB, JANG JJ, LEE HS. Visceral adipose tissue area is an independent risk factor for hepatic steatosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol

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The Severity of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver in Type II Diabetes


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that affects up to one third of the adult population of industrialized countries. The pathophysiological spectrum includes the following entities that are clinically and histologically distinct: hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis; their subsequent evolution can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.The increase of the prevalence of NAFLD during the last decade is caused by the epidemiological and pathophysiological association with type II diabetes and obesity, NAFLD being present in about 70-80% of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. It has long been thought that the relationship between type II diabetes mellitus and NAFLD is unidirectional, fatty liver being secondary to insulin resistance and type II diabetes mellitus, but recent studies show that hepatic steatosis may precede insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, thus demonstrating abidirectional causal relationship between these two disorders. Weight loss through diet andexercise is effective in preventing and treating NAFLD in diabetic patients; also, drugs that causeweight loss need to be evaluated. Both anti-diabetic medication and statins play an important vrole in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

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Non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease – practices for clinicians

REFERENCES 1. ALEMPIJEVIC T., DRAGASEVIC S., ZEC S., POPOVIC D., MILOSAVLJEVIC T. Non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease. Postgrad Med J 2017; 93 (1098):226-230. 2. SMITS M.M., VAN GEENEN E.J.M. The clinical significance of pancreatic steatosis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 8 (3): 169-177. 3. ROMANA B.S., CHELA H., DAILEY F.E., NASSIR F., TAHAN V. Non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD). A silent spectator or the fifth component of metabolic syndrome? A literature review. Endocrine Metab Immune Disord – Drug Targets 2018; 18

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Liraglutide exerts an anti-inflammatory action in obese patients with type 2 diabetes

X., Sun A., et al. Liraglutide attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis via regulating SIRT1/NOX4/ROS pathway in H9c2 cells . Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 499 (2):267-72. 7. INOUE T., INOGUCHI T., SONODA N., HENDARTO H., MAKIMURA H., SASAKI S., et al. GLP-1 analog liraglutide protects against cardiac steatosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats . Atherosclerosis 2015; 240 (1):250-9. 8. AGRAWAL R., ZHUANG Y., CUMMINGS BP., STANHOPE KL., GRAHAM JL., HAVEL PJ., GOMEZ-PINILLA F. Deterioration of

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Metabolic Syndrome and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009; 120: 1640-5 17. Williamson RM, Price JF, Glancy S et al. Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study Investigators. Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in people with type 2 diabetes: The Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 1139-44. 18. DaiW. : Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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Liver disease symptoms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

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Liver Fibrosis: Causes and Methods of Assessment, A Review

Shear Imaging with ARFI and FibroScan® . Journal of Hepatology 2014; 61(3) : 550-557. 60. CROSS TJS, CALVARUSO V, MAIMONE S, CAREY I, CHANG TP, PLEGUEZUELO M, et al . Prospective comparison of FibroScan®, king’s score and liver biopsy for the assessment of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C infection . J Viral Hepat 2010; 17(8) : 546-554. 61. MACALUSO FS, MAIDA M, CAMMÀ C, CABIBBO G, CABIBI D, ALDUINO R, DI MARCO V, et al . Steatosis affects the performance of liver stiffness measurement for fibrosis assessment in patients with genotype 1 chronic

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Liver stiffness in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

: Diagnostic performance compared to digital morphometric analysis of liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis C . J Viral Hepat 2018; 25 :335-43. 16. CONTI F., SERRA C., VUKOTIC R., FIORINI E., FELICANI C., MAZZOTTA E., et al. Accuracy of elastography point quantification and steatosis influence on assessing liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C . Liver Int 2017; 37 :187-95. 17. BOTA S, SPOREA I, PECK-RADOSAVLJEVIC M, SIRLI R, TANAKA H, IIJIMA H, et al. The influence of aminotransferase levels on liver stiffness assessed by Acoustic Radiation Force

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