ANABO, I. F., &ALBIZURI, I. E. (2017), LinkedIn comoInstrumento para la Evaluación de ProgramasdeEducación. Revista de Educación a Distancia, 53(8).
BANERJI, D., & REIMER, T. (2019), Startup founders and their LinkedIn connections: Are well-connected entrepreneurs more successful?, Computers in Human Behavior, 90, 46-52.
BARUFFALDI, S. H., DI MAIO, G., &LANDONI, P. (2017), Determinants of PhD holders’ use of socialnetworking sites: An analysis based on LinkedIn, Research Policy, 46(4), 740-750.
CASE, T. L., GARDINER, A
Agata Frankowska CDFMR, Izabella Łęcka CDFMR and Jan Frankowski CDFMR
, three basic measures of socialnetworkanalysis have been adopted: centrality degree (5) , betweenness (6) and closeness (7). Centrality degree indicates how many connection one node has. Betweenness degree indicates nodes that serve as bridges in the network. Closeness degree indicates nodes that have the shortest paths to all other nodes in a network.
1. Implementation of projects funded by international donors (binary variable)
2. Number of institutional connections of members of the boards with other organisations (discrete variable)
urgent. The research is especially useful for towns that are not national capitals and thus do not have the opportunity to force the whole country – or use the resources of the whole country – to ensure their development. Most provincial towns need to look for new solutions and additional resources in order to apply the Triple Helix model. Therefore, this article provides some analysis in the opportunities and difficulties provincial towns in two different countries face while applying the model.
The images of many post-industrial towns are defined today by their
Risto Kalliola CDFMR, Niina Käyhkö CDMR and Sanna Jokela DFMR
Regional Environmental Center, and the city of Turku) comes from the synergy benefits that they get for their GI operations – especially for data sharing, networking, and augmented professional competence. The two participating universities, in turn, are motivated by their interest in SDI-related research and education as well as the internship and job possibilities available to their graduates.
Our analysis first offers a retrospective narrative of the overall development of the Lounaispaikka-SDI from its initiation to the present form. As source materials, we used
Aleksandra Lewandowska CDFMR and Adam Piasecki CDFMR
to it. It is also important that households and industry limit water consumption through the spreading of modern pro-ecological technologies. These factors directly favour the greening of a city.
Studies on urban water and sewage management focus on technological, technical, environmental and socio-economic aspects. Technological and technical issues relate to practical guidelines for engineers for constructing urban water and sewage networks ( Todini, 2000 ; Pape, 2008 ; Coutts et al., 2013 ; Rojas-Torres et al., 2014 ) and the best water treatment and
Magdalena Bialic-Davendra, Pavel Bednář, Lukáš Danko and Jana Matošková
- based Strategies in Small and Medium-sized Cities: Key Dimensions of Analysis. In: Questiones Geographicae, Volume 31, Issue 4, AMU Poznań, pp. 43-51. DOI: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/quageo.2012.31.issue-4/v10117-012-0034-4/v10117-012-0034-4.xml
Semm, K., 2011: Neighborhood Milieu in the Cultural Economy of City Development: Berlin’s Helmholtzplatz and Soldiner in the German “Social City” Program. In: Cities, Volume 28, Issue 1, Elsevier Ltd, pp. 95-106. DOI: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275110001411
250 268 https://doi.org/10.1080/19376812.2015.1009381
Touraine, A. (1981). The voice and the eye: An analysis of social movements Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Touraine A. 1981 The voice and the eye: An analysis of social movements Cambridge Cambridge University Press
Verba, S. and Nie, N.H. (1972). Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. New York, Harper and Row.
Verba S. Nie N.H. 1972 Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality New York Harper and Row
Movement and communication
Fulfilment of conditions for required and optional activities
Fulfilment of conditions for social activities
Good living conditions
Good technical infrastructure network
Easy vertical and horizontal communication
Quick access to greeneries and to recreation and leisure areas
Quick access to services
Proper distribution of roads and paths
Good access to small architecture elements
Physical spatial arrangement of elements facilitating
-Rodríguez, V., editors, Environmental Gerontology in Europe and Latin America: Policies and Perspectives on Environment and Aging, International Perspectives on Aging, Vol. 13, New York: Springer Publishing Company, pp. 73-91.
Rojas, V., LeBlanc, H.P. and Sunil, T. S., 2014: US Retirement Migration to Mexico: Understanding Issues of Adaptation, Networking, and Social Integration. In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol. 15(2), pp. 257-273. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12134-013-0278-4
Shelley, E., 1996: Your Guide to
population of Poland and almost 47% of the total urban population ( Fig. 1 , Table 1 ). Thus, the study included all cities that in the research period (1950–2016) had a population of ≥100,000 residents.
Percentage share of cities of various size categories in Poland, 1950–2016 Source : Own study based on stat. gov.pl data
Characteristics of changes in the network of cities of ≥100,000 residents in Poland, 1950–2016
number of cities of ≥100,000 pop.