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Artur Appazov

, vol. 29, no. 6. GHOSH, Smith, TURRINI, Elliot. Cybercrimes: A Multidisplinary Analysis . Hedelberg: Springer, 2010. HAGAN, John, PETERSON, Ruth. (eds.), Crime and Inequality . Stanfrod: Stanford University Press, 1995 KATYAL, Neal. Criminal Law in Cyberspace. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 2001, vol. 149. KESAN, Jay, SHAH, Rajiv. Deconstructing Code. Yale Journal of Law and Technology , 2004, vol. 6. LANIER, Jaron. You are Not a Gadget. New York: Vintage Books, 2010. LATOUR, Bruno. Reassembling the Social: An

Open access

Ewan McGaughey

without. C Progressive Democracy Which ideals filled the space that the decline or defeat of the others left? By far the most important was progressive democracy. It has continually prevailed over all competitors. An alternative or additional taxonomy was developed by Mark J. Roe, Strong Managers, Weak Owners (1994) and Political Determinants of Corporate Governance (2003) using the terms ‘populism’ and ‘social democracy’; however these categories are insufficiently complex to provide an overall analysis of ideological development. See the discussion in Ewan

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Phoenix X. F. Cai

organizations, thereby creating a self-enforcing, hermetically sealed system in which corporate actors play a decisive role. B The Increasing Power of International Standard Setting Organizations Private governance takes many forms. Professors Abbott and Snidal refer to the broad network of mechanisms - many of which are voluntary - in which corporate actors directly inform and create industry association standards, corporate social responsibility best practices, and transparency initiatives collectively as “Transnational New Governance.” See Abbott & Snidal, supra

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Peter H. Huang

of mathematical social choice theory See, e.g ., Donald G. Saari, Basic Geometry of Voting (2013), Donald G. Saari, Disposing Dictators, Demystifying Voting Paradoxes: Social Choice Analysis (2007); Donald G. Saari, Chaotic Elections! A Mathematician Looks at Voting (2001); Donald G. Saari, Decisions and Elections: Explaining the Unexpected (2001). and mathematical politics. Alan D. Taylor & Allison M. Pacelli, Mathematics and Politics: Strategy, Voting, Power, and Proof (2d ed., 2008). Robert J. Aumann, a 2005 Nobel memorial prize in economic sciences

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Melissa Hamilton

focal concerns perspective that there will be disparities in upward departure outcomes because of differences in judges’ situational assessment of the focal concerns in individual cases, the extent of their agreement with the Guidelines-driven proportionality judgment, and their relative concern about the practical consequences of the sentence. The second theoretical perspective popular in sentencing research regards community courtroom cultures. “Court communities are distinct, localized social worlds with their own relationship networks, organizational culture

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Rodrigo Monardes V

represented a major challenge for Chile and established new standards for future trade negotiations, not only because of the broad scope of the agreement, but also because of the high standards introduced in different provisions across its chapters. Negotiations on trade in services involve several challenges arising from the particular nature of the sector and the range of activities that services cover - from social services, professional services, transport, and distribution to banking services - as well as from the multiple modes of services provision. Indeed

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Bruce M. Owen

well-informed voter assessment of the contribution of incumbents either to local or national well-being. Relative advertising expenditures and simple name recognition strongly influence election outcomes, along with the attitudes predominant in each voter’s immediate social network. A handful of high-salience policy issues dominate the media and influence debate. Changes in attitudes among political elites precede corresponding changes in the electorate. The process that produces elected officials is in many respects identical to the process that produces legislation

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Tania Voon and Elizabeth Sheargold

-Pacific Partnership Agreement: National Interest Analysis [2016] ATNIA 4 , par.10. New Zealand conducted its own modelling to determine that “entering TPP would be in New Zealand’s national interest” Min. Foreign Affairs & Trade, N.Z., Trans-Pacific Partnership: National Interest Analysis 27 (Jan. 25, 2016). See also Murray Griffin, New Zealand Analysis Shows More Limited TPP Benefits, Int’l Trade Daily, (Jan. 28, 2016). on the basis that its total benefits after three years would be “ten times larger than costs” and it would increase New Zealand’s GDP by 1% by 2030. Min

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Adam J MacLeod

timid and hardworking animals with the government as shepherd.” The consequences that Tocqueville anticipated are worth considering at length. [T]he ruling power, having taken each citizen one by one into its powerful grasp and having molded him to its own liking, spreads its arms over the whole of society, covering the surface of social life with a network of petty, complicated, detailed, and uniform rules through which even the most original minds and the most energetic of spirits cannot reach the light in order to rise above the crowd. It does not break men

Open access

Thomas Halper

voice? Literally, it refers to the sound, rhythm, timbre, and intonation of a speaker, and it is sufficiently identifiable on an individual basis to accommodate voice recognition software. But when used metaphorically, voice seems to recall Augustine’s famous riposte on time. “If no one asks me, I know what it is. If I wish to explain it to him who asks, I do not know.” Confessions 162 (Albert C. Outler ed. & trans., n.d.). At its heart, though, it means at least this: voice reflects the personal presence of the writer, and it is a social act in that it presumes an