Agata Frankowska CDFMR, Izabella Łęcka CDFMR and Jan Frankowski CDFMR
, three basic measures of socialnetworkanalysis have been adopted: centrality degree (5) , betweenness (6) and closeness (7). Centrality degree indicates how many connection one node has. Betweenness degree indicates nodes that serve as bridges in the network. Closeness degree indicates nodes that have the shortest paths to all other nodes in a network.
1. Implementation of projects funded by international donors (binary variable)
2. Number of institutional connections of members of the boards with other organisations (discrete variable)
urgent. The research is especially useful for towns that are not national capitals and thus do not have the opportunity to force the whole country – or use the resources of the whole country – to ensure their development. Most provincial towns need to look for new solutions and additional resources in order to apply the Triple Helix model. Therefore, this article provides some analysis in the opportunities and difficulties provincial towns in two different countries face while applying the model.
The images of many post-industrial towns are defined today by their
Risto Kalliola CDFMR, Niina Käyhkö CDMR and Sanna Jokela DFMR
Regional Environmental Center, and the city of Turku) comes from the synergy benefits that they get for their GI operations – especially for data sharing, networking, and augmented professional competence. The two participating universities, in turn, are motivated by their interest in SDI-related research and education as well as the internship and job possibilities available to their graduates.
Our analysis first offers a retrospective narrative of the overall development of the Lounaispaikka-SDI from its initiation to the present form. As source materials, we used
Magdalena Bialic-Davendra, Pavel Bednář, Lukáš Danko and Jana Matošková
- based Strategies in Small and Medium-sized Cities: Key Dimensions of Analysis. In: Questiones Geographicae, Volume 31, Issue 4, AMU Poznań, pp. 43-51. DOI: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/quageo.2012.31.issue-4/v10117-012-0034-4/v10117-012-0034-4.xml
Semm, K., 2011: Neighborhood Milieu in the Cultural Economy of City Development: Berlin’s Helmholtzplatz and Soldiner in the German “Social City” Program. In: Cities, Volume 28, Issue 1, Elsevier Ltd, pp. 95-106. DOI: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275110001411
-Rodríguez, V., editors, Environmental Gerontology in Europe and Latin America: Policies and Perspectives on Environment and Aging, International Perspectives on Aging, Vol. 13, New York: Springer Publishing Company, pp. 73-91.
Rojas, V., LeBlanc, H.P. and Sunil, T. S., 2014: US Retirement Migration to Mexico: Understanding Issues of Adaptation, Networking, and Social Integration. In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol. 15(2), pp. 257-273. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12134-013-0278-4
Shelley, E., 1996: Your Guide to
population of Poland and almost 47% of the total urban population ( Fig. 1 , Table 1 ). Thus, the study included all cities that in the research period (1950–2016) had a population of ≥100,000 residents.
Percentage share of cities of various size categories in Poland, 1950–2016 Source : Own study based on stat. gov.pl data
Characteristics of changes in the network of cities of ≥100,000 residents in Poland, 1950–2016
number of cities of ≥100,000 pop.
paleoecological proxy data and ecological modeling. In: Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol. 5., 22 January 2015, Article 785., pp. 1-12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00785
Mamut, M., 2011: Veza prirodnogeografske i sociogeografske osnove Dalmacije s ugrozenoscu otvorenog prostora pozarom (Ties between the geographical and social geographical features of Dalmatia with the endangerment of forest fires - in Croatian). In: Sumarski list (Forestry Bulletin), Vol. 135, No. 1-2, pp. 37-50.
Matić,S., Anić, I., Orsanić, M. and Mikac, S., 2011
consequences of this, but the socio-economic status of the inhabitants was also affected.
Łódź is the third largest city in Poland and is in the midst of infrastructural and social revitalisation. However, issues arising from its post-industrial past are still visible in the economic status of the city and its inhabitants. The unique blend of its exceptional location within Poland and the problems described above makes the city of Łódź an interesting subject for travel behaviour analysis.
4 Material and research methods
The empirical research is based on the dataset
economic transition, for four decades, China has been pursuing a path of development in line with the reality of the country ( Herston, 2008 ). China has successfully combined agricultural growth mechanisms, value chain analysis and a market mechanism ( Quah, 2009 ). This market mechanism has a cardinal public ownership system, which has ushered in an era of unprecedented progress ( Perkins, 2008 ; Huang, 2008 ). Past studies have indicated that China’s gross domestic product (GDP) advanced by an average of 9.3% each year from 1978 to 2015 (NBS, China 2016). This has
; Glaeser and Gyourko, 2005 ), although there are exceptions ( Deilmann et al., 2009 ; Glock and Häussermann, 2004 ; Wilhelmsson et al., 2011 ).
The objective of the current study was to assess attitudes in Portugal regarding the integration of population decrease and housing development in local spatial planning strategies, taking into account that shrinking areas frequently have a housing surplus. We hoped that a content analysis would reveal whether, and how, local spatial planning practice (namely urban and expansion areas for housing) aligned with the population