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Luiz Wellington Pinto, Silvia Veloso Gandra, Matheus de Carvalho Alves, Isabel Gomes and Eduardo Back Sternick

Introduction Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition measures resistance and reactance as well as other parameters calculated by mathematical equations. A variety of methods are used for BIA analysis, including skin-fold measurements, single, multifrequency, and segmental BIA, bioimpedance spectroscopy, and more complex methods like dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [ 1 , 2 ]. BIA assessment has gained widespread popularity because it is easy to perform, portable, inexpensive, observer independent, and safe. Current indication has

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Mirele S. Mialich, Bruna R. Silva and Alceu A. Jordao

in studies using the BMI. However, the precision of the BMI for the assessment of body fat will continue to be debated since the BMI, although extensively used as a substitute measurement of adiposity, is more a measurement of excess weight in relation to height than a measurement of excess body weight. The BMI does not distinguish between fat mass and fat-free mass nor does it consider the distribution of fat throughout the body. Thus, other measures of adiposity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and information about skinfold thickness and body