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Atanas G. Baltadjiev, Stefka V. Vladeva and Dimitar B. Bahariev

Abstract

Background: The complex study of adipose tissue in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is of importance for the clinical course and prognosis of the disease.

Aim: To study the distribution of adipose tissue in Bulgarian females with T2DM.

Patients and methods: The study included 92 women with T2DM (age range 40-60 years). The control group consisted of 40 age-matched women. Measurement parameters: height, weight, 9 skinfolds (sf) – sfTriceps, sfBiceps brachii, sfForearm, sfSubscapular, sfXrib, sfAbdomen, sfSuprailiaca, sfThigh, and sfCalf; bioelectrical impedance analysis - % body fat tissue and visceral fat tissue. Calculated indexes: body mass index (BMI), the ratio sfTrunk to sfLimbs, the ratio skin folds upper half of body/skin folds lower half of body, fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass.

Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the means of sfTriceps, sfXrib, sfThigh, sfCalf, % body fat tissue, visceral fat tissue, and fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass between the diabetic and healthy women. The body composition of diabetic females aged 40-60 years contained a larger adipose component than controls. Visceral adipose tissue which determines the body composition is a reliable indicator of the health risks in diabetic women.

Conclusion: The pattern of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in diabetic females aged 40-60 yrs was primarily in the upper torso region and less so in the limbs. In the controls adipose tissue is accumulated primarily in the limbs and in the lower part of the body.

Open access

Jasmina Pluncevic-Gligoroska, Lidija Todorovska, Beti Dejanova, Vesela Maleska, Sanja Mancevska and Slobodan Nikolic

Abstract

Objectives: The focus of this study is on anthropometric characteristics of footballers in the Republic of Macedonia, and the aim is to provide normative data for selected anthropometric parameters for adult male footballers in our country.

Material and method: The study included eight hundred (800) adult male footballers, aged 24.06 ± 4.8y (age range 18–35y), who have undertaken routine sport medical examinations over a ten-year period. The football players were divided into six age – specific subgroups (“up to 20”; “up to 22”; “up to 24”; “up to 26”; “up to 28” and “over 28” years). Anthropometric measurements were made by Matiegka's protocols and body composition components were determined.

Results: Average values of body height (178.8 ± 6.7 cm), body weight (77.72 ± 7.9 kg), lean body mass (66.21 ± 6.36 kg), body components (MM% = 53.04; BM% = 17.15; FM% = 14.7%) and a large series of anthropometric measurements which define the footballers' anthropometric dimensions were obtained. The distribution of the adipose tissue regarding the body and limbs showed that the skinfolds were thickest on the lower limbs and thinnest on the arms.

Conclusions: The adult football players in Republic of Macedonia were insignificantly variable in height and body mass from their counter parts from European and American teams. The football players up to 20 year, who played in the senior national football league were lighter and smaller than their older colleagues. The football players aged from 20 to 35 years were insignificantly variable in height, body mass, and anthropometric dimensions of limbs and trunk.

Open access

Man Lidia, Pitea Ana Maria, Chinceșan Mihaela Ioana, Man A, Mărginean Oana and Baghiu Maria Despina

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric and biochemical status of children with nutritional deficiency. Methods: We have conducted a prospective study on 226 children admitted in Pediatric Clinic I, divided into two groups: one group of 49 children with nutritional deficiency (body-mass-index < -2SD) and one control group (177 children). We have followed demographic data, anthropometric indices evaluated as standard deviations (weight, height, middle upper-arm circumference, tricipital skinfold), biochemical proteic status (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 IGF-1, albumin, total proteins). We also followed parameters of general nutritional biochemistry. Results: The mean age for underweight children was 5.8 years, lower than in the control group. The weight of the nutritional-deficient group was significantly lower than in the control group, unlike the height (p <0.001). We have also found significant differences in body-mass-index, middle upper-arm circumference and tricipital skinfold, all of them with low SDs in children with nutritional deficiency. Regarding the biochemical markers, we have found significantly higher values of transaminases (p <0.001) and lower IGF-1 (p = 0.02) and total proteins (p = 0.013) in nutritional-deficient group. Most IGF-1 values were in normal range in both groups, but with a higher percent of low values in nutritional deficient children (37.5% vs 14.2%, p = 0.0046). There were no significant differences in height, albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels between the two groups. Conclusions: The anthropometric measurements are the most precise methods in evaluating the nutritional status. Among the studied biochemical markers, IGF-1, total proteins and transaminases are correlated with nutritional deficiencies

Open access

Konstantinos E. Tilkeridis, Evaggelos F. Theodorou, Jannis V. Papathanasiou, Pelagia A. Chloropoulou, Grigorios A. Trypsianis, Savvas P. Tokmakidis and Konstantinos I. Kazakos

Abstract

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the infl uence of systematic training in physical growth and biological maturity in prepubertal males and estimate how this affects the physical growth and skeletal maturity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 177 primary school students of the fifth and sixth grade, from schools in Alexandroupolis, participated voluntarily in our study. Questionnaires were used in order to measure physical activity levels. The subjects were subdivided into two groups; control group (prepubertal, whose physical activity was the physical education of their school and which had never participated in systematic training, n = 95) and experimental group (prepubertal, whose weekly physical activity included physical education in their schools and additionally 3-4 training units organized training in various sports clubs in the city, n = 82). The following parameters were recorded: biological age measured by determination of skeletal age; bone density measured by ultrasound methods; anthropometric and morphological features such as height, body composition, selected diameters, circumferences and skinfolds; motor ability features. RESULTS: The experimental group exhibited older biological age (p = 0.033), higher bone density (p < 0.001), lower BMI and body fat (p < 0.001), better anthropometric features and higher performance throughout all motor ability tests (p < 0.05), compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that systematic physical activity has a positive effect on both the physical and biological maturity of pre-pubertal children. This effect is mainly expressed in bone strengthening as a result of the increased bone density and in improvement of the kinetic skills of pupils who participated in organized extracurricular sport-activities.

Open access

M.A. Badea, S.H. Morariu and Anca Sin

. Association between skin thickness and bone density in adult women. An Bras Dermatol.2011;86(5):878-884. 15. Dykes PJ, A Francis AJ, Marks R. Measurement of dermal thickness with the harpenden skinfold caliper. Archives of Dermatological Research. 1976;256(3): 261-263. 16. Barnes L, Ino F, Jaunin F et al. Inhibition of Putative Hyalurosome Platform in Keratinocytes as a Mechanism for Corticosteroid-Induced Epidermal Atrophy. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2013;133:1017-1026.

Open access

Bekim Haxhiu, Ardiana Murtezani, Bedri Zahiti, Ismet Shalaj and Sabit Sllamniku

Abstract

AIM: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. RESULTS: Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p < 0.01), age (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.49-2.81, p < 0.01) and a previous injury (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 2.14-9.07, p < 0.01) were significantly correlated to increased risk of injuries. Body mass index was not associated with risk of injury. Strains (34.19%) and sprains (25.81%) were the major injury types. Twenty-seven percent of injured players were absent from football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. CONCLUSION: The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

Open access

Stoilka K. Mandadzhieva, Blagoi I. Marinov and Stefan S. Kostianev

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Open access

Martin M. Simeonov, Alexander S. Yonkov, Evgeniy K. Moshekov and Penka P. Stefanova

. Recovery after open versus laparoscopic pyloromyotomy for pyloric stenosis: a double-blind multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009; 373(9661): 390-8. 8. Hall NJ, Van Der Zee J, Tan HL, et al. Meta-analysis of laparoscopic versus open pyloromyotomy. Ann Surg 2004; 240(5): 774-8. 9. Handu AT, Jadhav V, Deepak J, et al. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: lessons learnt in our first 101 cases. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2014; 19(4): 213-7. 10. Horwitz JR, Lally KP. Supraumbilical skin-fold incision for pyloromyotomy. Am J Surg 1996; 171(4): 439

Open access

Nela Raseta, Slobodan Simovic, Sonja Djuric, Nenad Suzic, Alma Prtina and Nina Zeljkovic

]. Retrieved from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthylifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi# 40. World Health Organization. (2008). Waist circumference and Waist-hip ratio, Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 41. Durnin J.V.G.A. & Womersley J. (1974). Body fat assessed from the total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. British Journal of Nutrition, 32(1), 77–97. DOI: 10.1079/BJN19740060 42

Open access

Duangporn Thong-Ngam, Maneerat Chayanupatkul and Vikit Kittisupamongkon

, Rodgers A, Pan WH, Gu DF, Woodward M. Body mass index and cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific region: overview of 33 cohorts involving 310,000 participants. Int J Epidemiol. 2004; 33:751-8. 11. Durnin JVGA, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr. 1974; 32:77-97. 12. WHO Expert Consultation. Appropiate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implication for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet