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Marjeta Mišigoj-Duraković, Maroje Sorić and Zijad Duraković

enlarged waist and elevated triacylglycerol concentration. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:928-34. PMID: 14594778 44. Solati M, Ghanbarian A, Rahmani M, Sarbazi N, Allahverdian S, Azizi F. Cardiovascular risk factors in males with hypertriglycemic waist (Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28:706-9. PMID: 14770189 45. Deurenberg P, Pieters JJ, Hautvast JG. The assessment of the body fat percentage by skinfold thickness measurements in childhood and young adolescence. Br J Nutr 1990;63:293-303. PMID: 2334665

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Duangporn Thong-Ngam, Maneerat Chayanupatkul and Vikit Kittisupamongkon

, Rodgers A, Pan WH, Gu DF, Woodward M. Body mass index and cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific region: overview of 33 cohorts involving 310,000 participants. Int J Epidemiol. 2004; 33:751-8. 11. Durnin JVGA, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr. 1974; 32:77-97. 12. WHO Expert Consultation. Appropiate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implication for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet

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Anna Nikolova and Diana Dimitrova

.J., Mujika I., Hahn A.G., Sharpe K., Jenkins D.G. (2005) Physique traits of lightweight rowers and their relationship to competitive success. Brit. J. Sports Med., 39(10): 736-741. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.015990. 33. Slaughter M.H., Lohman T.G., Boileau R.A., Horswill C.A., Stillman R.J., Van Loan M.D., Bemben D.A. (1988) Skin­fold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum. Biol., 60(5): 709-723. 34. Sterkowicz S., Lech G., Pałka T., Tyka A., Sterkowicz-Przybycień K.L., Szyguła Z., Klys A. (2011) Body build and body

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Matthew P. Shaw, Joshua Robinson and Daniel J. Peart

.J., Kuperminc M., Hassani S., Buhr N., Tylkowski C. (2014) Accuracy of skinfold and bioelectrical impedance assessments of body fat percentage in ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy. Dev. Med. Child Neurol., 56: 475-481. DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12342. 21. Otter S.J., Agalliu B., Baer N., Hales G., Harvey K., James K., Keating R., McConnell W., Nelson R., Qureshi S. (2015) The reliability of a smartphone goniometer application compared with a traditional goniometer for measuring first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion. J. Foot Ankle Res., 8: 1. DOI: 10

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Marzena Malara, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak and Anna Kurczyńska

skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br. J. Nutr. 32:77-97. Gey K. F. (1995) Cardiovascular disease and vitamins. Concurrent correction of suboptimal plasma antioxidant levels may, as important part of "optimal" nutrition, help to prevent early stages of cardiovascular disease and cancer, respectively. Bibl. Nutr. Dieta 52:75-91. Guilland J. C., T. Penaranda, C. Gallet, V. Boggio, F. Fuchs, J. Klepping (1989) Vitamin status of young athletes including the effects of

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Konrad Witek

.Cifkova (2003) European guidelines on cadiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur.J.Cardiovasc.Prevent.Rehab. 10(suppl. 1). Durnin J.V., J.Womersley (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women ages from 16 to 72 years. Br. J. Nutr. 32:77-97. Durstine J.L., P.W.Grandjean, C.A.Cox, P.D.Thompson (2002) Lipids, lipoproteins, and exercise. J. Cardiopulmonary Rehab. 22:385-398. Friedewald W.T., R

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Anna Ogonowska, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak, Andrzej Kosmol and Wilhelm Gromisz

-competition plasma cortisol concentrations in elite male swimmers. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 82:368-373. Darby L. A., B. C. Yaekle (2000) Physiological responses during two types of exercise performed on land and in the water. J. SportsMed.Phys.Fitn. 40:303-311. Durnin J. V. G. A., J. Womersley (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br.J. Nutr. 32:77-95. Gastin P. B. (1994) Quantification of

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Mauro de Souza e Silva, Adalberto de Souza Rabelo, Rodrigo Vale, Max Ferrão, Leila Gonçalves, Marcos de Sá Rego Fortes, Sérgio Moreira and Estélio Dantas

skinfolds. Phys.Educ.Sport 52:84-87. DOI: 10.2478/v10030-008-0018-2 Stisen A. B., O. Stougaard, J. Langfort, J. W. Helge, K. Sahlin, K. Madsen (2006) Maximal fat oxidation rates in endurance trained and untrained women. Eur.J. Appl.Physiol. 98:497-506. Thompson P. D., D. Buchner, I. L. Pina, G. L. Balady, M. A. Williams, B. H. Marcus, et al. (2003) Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Circulation 107:3109-3116.

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Daniel das Virgens Chagas and Luiz Alberto Batista

) Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Med ., 45: 1273-1284. 18. Slaughter M., Lohman T., Boileau R. (1988) Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum. Biol ., 60: 709-723. 19. Stodden D.F., Goodway J.D., Langendorfer S.J., Roberton M., Rudisill M., Garcia C., Garcia L. (2008) A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship. Quest ., 60: 290-306. 20. Vandendriessche J., Vandorpe B., Coelho-e-Silva M

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Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol and Lakkana Rerksuppaphol

Abstract

Background: Cyproheptadine has been used therapeutically as an appetite stimulant in various chronic illnesses. However, no clinical data are available on the therapeutic effect of cyproheptadine in malnourished children without underlying pathological conditions. Objective: Investigate the short-term effect of cyproheptadine on weight gain in malnourished children who appear otherwise normal on physical examination. Methods: Seventy malnourished children who were otherwise normal on physical examination were recruited to participate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-seven children were randomized to a treatment regimen of cyproheptadine (0.1 mg/kg/dose, three times/day for eight weeks), and 33 children were randomized to receive placebo over a period of eight weeks. Subjects were evaluated at a baseline visit and at four visits at two-week intervals. Parameters assessed included baseline demographics, anthropometrics (weight, height, skin-fold thickness, waist and hip circumferences, and fat composition by bioelectric impedance analysis), adverse events, and pill counts. Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test and Chi-square test; a p- value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: No significant differences were observed in baseline demographic characteristics and anthropometric parameters between the groups. The cyproheptadine-treated group showed a significantly greater weight gain over the baseline compared with the control group. The absolute weight gain was significantly higher in the cyproheptadine-treated group than in the control group at the end of study. No significant difference was observed in the change in the body fat percentage between the groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events included mild sedation, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. No significant differences in the frequency of adverse events were observed between the groups. Conclusions: Cyproheptadine treatment was well tolerated and resulted in significant weight gain in malnourished children, without increasing the body fat percentage.