turnover markers in professional football players and in physically inactive men. Physiol Res, 2014, 63 (2), 237-243. 12. Lohman T.G., Skinfolds and body density and their relation to body fatness: A review. Hum Biol, 1981, 53 (2), 181-225. 13. Brozek J., Grande F., Anderson J.T., Keys A., Densitometric analysis of body composition: Revision of some quantitative assumptions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1963, 110, 113-140, doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1963. tb17079.x. 14. Holick M.F., Vitamin D deficiency in 2010
Anna Książek, Aleksandra Zagrodna, Jadwiga Pietraszewska and Małgorzata Słowińska -Lisowska
Beat Knechtle, Patrizia Knechtle and Thomas Rosemann
., Anthropometric and training variables related to 10 km running performance. Br J Sports Med , 1986, 20 (4), 170-173. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.20.4.170. Arrese A.L., Ostáriz E.S., Skinfold thicknesses associated with distance running performance in highly trained runners. J Sports Sci , 2006, 24 (1), 69-76. DOI: 10.1080/02640410500127751. Legaz A., Eston R., Changes in performance, skinfold thicknesses, and fat patterning after three years of intense athletic conditioning in high level runners. Br J Sports Med , 2005, 39 (11), 851
Aleksandra Stachoń, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Anna Burdukiewicz and Justyna Andrzejewska
changes and relationship to cardiovascular fitness in Canadians Hum Biol 1986 58 6 955 973 Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41463836 10. Martin R., Saller K., Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstellung. Band I [in German]. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1959. Martin R. Saller K. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstellung. Band I [in German] Gustav Fischer Verlag Stuttgart 1959 11. Slaughter M.H., Lohman T.G., Boileau R.A., Horswill C.A., Stillman R.J., van Loan M.D. et al. Skinfold
Mbelege R. Nkwana, Kotsedi D. Monyeki, Moloko Matshipi, Machoene D. Sekgala, Nthai E. Ramoshaba and Tshephang M. J. Mashiane
;3(2). 9. Sengupta P, Chaudhuri P, Bhattacharya K. Screening obesity by direct and derived anthropometric indices with evaluation of physical efficiency among female college students of Kolkata. Ann Medical Health Sci Res. 2013; 3(4):517-522; doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.122066. 10. McRae MP. Male and female differences invariability with estimating body fat composition using skinfold calipers. J Chiropr Med. 2010;9(4);157-161; doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2010.07.002. 11. Koley S, Singh AP. An association of dominant hand grip strength with some
Atanas G. Baltadjiev, Stefka V. Vladeva and Dimitar B. Bahariev
Background: The complex study of adipose tissue in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is of importance for the clinical course and prognosis of the disease.
Aim: To study the distribution of adipose tissue in Bulgarian females with T2DM.
Patients and methods: The study included 92 women with T2DM (age range 40-60 years). The control group consisted of 40 age-matched women. Measurement parameters: height, weight, 9 skinfolds (sf) – sfTriceps, sfBiceps brachii, sfForearm, sfSubscapular, sfXrib, sfAbdomen, sfSuprailiaca, sfThigh, and sfCalf; bioelectrical impedance analysis - % body fat tissue and visceral fat tissue. Calculated indexes: body mass index (BMI), the ratio sfTrunk to sfLimbs, the ratio skin folds upper half of body/skin folds lower half of body, fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass.
Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the means of sfTriceps, sfXrib, sfThigh, sfCalf, % body fat tissue, visceral fat tissue, and fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass between the diabetic and healthy women. The body composition of diabetic females aged 40-60 years contained a larger adipose component than controls. Visceral adipose tissue which determines the body composition is a reliable indicator of the health risks in diabetic women.
Conclusion: The pattern of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in diabetic females aged 40-60 yrs was primarily in the upper torso region and less so in the limbs. In the controls adipose tissue is accumulated primarily in the limbs and in the lower part of the body.
Jasmina Pluncevic-Gligoroska, Lidija Todorovska, Beti Dejanova, Vesela Maleska, Sanja Mancevska and Slobodan Nikolic
Objectives: The focus of this study is on anthropometric characteristics of footballers in the Republic of Macedonia, and the aim is to provide normative data for selected anthropometric parameters for adult male footballers in our country.
Material and method: The study included eight hundred (800) adult male footballers, aged 24.06 ± 4.8y (age range 18–35y), who have undertaken routine sport medical examinations over a ten-year period. The football players were divided into six age – specific subgroups (“up to 20”; “up to 22”; “up to 24”; “up to 26”; “up to 28” and “over 28” years). Anthropometric measurements were made by Matiegka's protocols and body composition components were determined.
Results: Average values of body height (178.8 ± 6.7 cm), body weight (77.72 ± 7.9 kg), lean body mass (66.21 ± 6.36 kg), body components (MM% = 53.04; BM% = 17.15; FM% = 14.7%) and a large series of anthropometric measurements which define the footballers' anthropometric dimensions were obtained. The distribution of the adipose tissue regarding the body and limbs showed that the skinfolds were thickest on the lower limbs and thinnest on the arms.
Conclusions: The adult football players in Republic of Macedonia were insignificantly variable in height and body mass from their counter parts from European and American teams. The football players up to 20 year, who played in the senior national football league were lighter and smaller than their older colleagues. The football players aged from 20 to 35 years were insignificantly variable in height, body mass, and anthropometric dimensions of limbs and trunk.
Alejandro Vaquera, Santiago Santos, José Gerardo Villa, Juan Carlos Morante and Vicente García-Tormo
The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.
Aleksandra Stachoń and Jadwiga Pietraszewska
Purpose. Body composition and fat distribution is specific for particular populations and social groups. However, one factor that significantly affects body composition is physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the various components of body composition in male physical education students with regard to their physical activity level. Methods. A detailed questionnaire survey on physical activity was administered to 252 male students. Based on their responses, the participants were placed into two groups engaged in either moderate or vigorous physical activity. Anthropometric measurements included measures of body height and mass and also skinfold thickness. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by comparing the groups’ mean values, standard deviations, and percentages of the components of body composition. Results. The groups did not differ significantly for mean body height and mass. No statistically significant differences were found in the absolute amounts of the various components of body composition (except for fat mass) between the groups. Both groups had 61.5 kg of fat-free mass (constituting 80.6% of body mass for the vigorously active and 78.7% of body mass for the moderately active students) and both had 44 kg of muscle mass (constituting 58.3% and 56.1% of body mass, respectively). Students who declared to be involved in vigorous physical activity had 2 kg less and 2% lower fat mass than those involved in moderate physical activity (based on BIA measurements). Measures of skinfold thickness found more subcutaneous fat tissue in the vigorously active group, but the use of a fat index based on body height found them to present less fat. Conclusions. The difference in fat content between physical education students who were more or less physically active was found to be 2 kg and 2%. The results found that physical activity level was not associated with body height, body mass, and the absolute amounts of the other studied components of body composition.
Aitor Iturricastillo, Cristina Granados and Javier Yanci
The present study analyzed the changes in body composition and physical performance in wheelchair basketball (WB) players during one competitive season. Players from a WB team competing in the first division of the Spanish League (n = 8, age: 26.5 ± 2.9 years, body mass: 79.8 ± 12.6 kg, sitting height: 91.4 ± 4.4 cm) participated in this research. The upper limbs showed a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue and there was an improvement in physical abilities such as sprinting with the ball (5 and 20 m), handgrip and aerobic capacity. However, the changes in physical fitness concerning sprinting without the ball and agility tests were low. It would be interesting to study the effects of implementing specific programs to improve physical performance in WB and to establish more test sessions to monitor the effects of the programs followed.
Nayera E Hassan, Sahar A El-Masry, Nadia L Soliman, Mona M El-Batran, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Salwa R El-Batrawy and Mehrevan M Abd El-Moniem
. 18. Freedman DS, Katzmarzyk PT, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of BMI and skinfold thicknesses to risk factors among young and middle-aged adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Ann Hum Biol. 2010;37(6):726-37. 19. Samue K, Allison DB, Heymsfield SB, Kelley DE, Leibel RL, Nonas C, Kahn R. Waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk: a consensus statement from Shaping America’s Health: Association for Weight Management and Obesity Prevention; NAASO, The Obesity Society; the American Society for Nutrition; and the American Diabetes