in prevalence of overweight and obesity, and in extent of overweight index in children and adolescence (3-18 years) from Kraków, Poland in 1983, 2000 and 2010. Public Health Nutr 19(6):1035-46. Kryst Ł, Bilińska I, Kowal M, Woronkowicz A, Sobiecki J. 2017. Long-term changes in skinfolds thickness in children and adolescents aged 3-18 from Krakow (Poland), within the last 30 years (from 1983 to 2010). Obes Facts 10(suppl 1):1-274. Kryst Ł, Woronkowicz A, Kowal M, Pilecki MW, Sobiecki J. 2016. Abdominal obesity screening tools in the
Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal and Jan Sobiecki
Mahfouz Al-Bachir and Hussam Ahhmad
. Obes Rev 9:582-93. Cherkaoui Dekkaki I, Mouane N, Ettair S, Meskini T, Bouklouze A, Barkat A. 2011. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in children: A study in government primary schools in Rabat, Morocco. Archives of Medical Research 42:703-8. Chinn S, Rona RJ. 1994. Trends in weight-forheight and triceps skinfold thickness for English and Scottish children, 1972-and 1982-1990. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 8:90-106. Clayton B. 1994. Department of Health. Eat well an action plan from the nutrition task force to achieve
Anna Pastuszak, Joanna Lewandowska, Krzysztof Buśko and Jadwiga Charzewska
The study is aimed at evaluation of the effect of regular physical activity on total and subcutaneous body fat and its distribution in boys aged 10 to 16 years. A three-year longitudinal study was carried out in order to monitor physical development in 237 boys from sports schools and regular schools in Warsaw, Poland. The boys were selected so that their rate of puberty changes was similar based on evaluation of voice and facial hair. The authors measured 5 skinfolds in the following sites: triceps, calf, subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds. The percentage fraction of total body fat in body mass was measured by means of Tanita TBF 300 electronic body composition analyser. A limb fat to trunk fat ratio (LF/TF) was also calculated in order to evaluate the type of distribution of subcutaneous fat in boys and monitor its changes as affected by regular high physical activity throughout puberty. Lower total body fat and subcutaneous fat in boys from sports schools was the effect of considerably higher physical activity. It was demonstrated that with some minimal values of total body fat and subcutaneous fat, physical activity did not cause a reduction in body fat. It was found that elevated physical activity in boys is conducive to development of a more limb-oriented (peripheral) fatness, which is more favourable to human health
Sampriti Debnath, Nitish Mondal and Jaydip Sen
from skinfolds. Disab Health J 10:100-4. Griffiths LJ, Sera F, Cortina-Borja M, Law C, Ness A, Dezateux C. 2016. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time: Cross-sectional and prospective associations with adiposity in the Millennium Cohort Study. BMJ Open 6:e010366. Gültekin T, Akin G, Ozer BK. 2005. Gender differences in fat patterning in children living in Ankara. Anthropol Anz 63:427-37. Guo B, Wu Q, Gong J, Xiao Z, Tang Y, Shang J, Cheng Y, Xu H. 2016. Gender difference in body fat for healthy
Sampriti Debnath, Nitish Mondal and Jaydip Sen
2:139-53. Frisancho AR, Tracer DP. 1987. Standards of arm muscle by stature for the assessment of nutritional status of children. Am J Phys Anthropol 73:459-65. Frisancho AR. 1981 New norms of upper limb fat and muscle areas for assessment of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2540-5. Frisancho AR. 1989. Anthropometric standard for the assessment of growth and nutrition status. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Frisancho AR. 1974. Triceps skinfold and upper arm muscle size norms for
Maciej Henneberg and James Grantham
:1111-20. Brown CD, Higgins M, Donato KA, Rohde FC, Garrison R, Oberzanek E, Ernst ND, Horan M. 2000. Body mass index and the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Obesity 8(9):605-19. Cabarello B. 2005. A nutrition paradox - underweight and obesity in developing nations. New Engl J Med 352(15):1514-16. Chiang BN, Pearlman LV. 1969. Overweight and hypertension: a review. Circulation 39(1): 403-21. Durdin E. 2007 Lean shape and fatness: Lean frame size and skinfold thickness in South Australiam youth. Anatomical Sciences
Anna Pastuszak, Krzysztof Buśko and Ewa Kalka
Field Methods. International Biological Programme. Oxford and Edinburgh: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Wit B., Piechaczek H., Błachnio D., Buśko K., 1998. Comparative assessment of selected body components from bioelectrical impedance or skinfold measurements. Biol Sport 15(4):205-10. Viviani F, Baldin F. 1993. The somatotype of “amateur” Italian female volleyball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 33(4):400-4.
Anna Ziomkiewicz and Sławomir Kozieł
There is a long dispute among anthropologist over which factor is more important – skeletal maturation or energy accumulation – for menarche occurrence. Here we report results of longitudinal study conducted on the sample of 178 girls followed for the period from 2 years before to 2 years after the age of menarche. Each year during this period anthropometric measures of waist and hip circumference, pelvis breadth, subscapular, triceps and abdominal skinfold thickness were taken to document girls’ physical development. We found that changes in hip circumference and pelvis breadth were the most closely associated with menarche appearance. We also found that changes in anthropometric measures of lower body part preceded changes in anthropometric measures of upper body part and tended to peak one year before menarche occurrence while changes in upper body part tended to peak one year after menarche occurrence. These results suggest that both skeletal maturation and energy accumulation in the form of fat are equally important for menarche to occur. Furthermore, we are proposing a new indicator describing allometric changes of pelvis around menarche: hip circumference to pelvis breadth ratio (HCPBR).
Julia Pápai, Zsófia Tróznai, Tamás Szabó and Attila Szabó
The study focused on the peculiarities of fat accumulation during maturation. The main purpose of the study was trifold: to detect the alterations in fat gain during breast maturation; to examine fat accumulation after physiological maturation and the influence of breast maturation and sport activity on fatness. The subjects were athlete (N=1428) and non-athlete (N=1030) girls. They were grouped by the stages of breast development. Fat accumulation was followed up until four years after menarche. Regional fat distribution was examined on the basis of skinfolds taken at triceps, scapula, abdomen and thigh. Progressing with breast development, body fat percent increased in both groups, though in non-athletes a decrease was found in stage B4. During sexual maturation the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased on the extremities and increased on the trunk. Non-athletes stored more fat on their upper trunk, while athletes did it on their lower trunk. After menarche the differences between athlete and non-athlete girls were preserved. In conclusion it may be stated that during sexual maturation the regional apposition trend of body fat was similar for athletes and non-athletes. The differences emerged in the relative distributions. Athlete girls accumulated proportionally more fat on their lower body, representing better the female-type distribution of body fat than non-athlete girls.
Dominika Szafraniec and Wojciech Czarny
The purpose of this work was twofold: to determine prevalence of hypertension and high normal blood pressure in university students, and to assess impact of body weight status, field of study and selected lifestyle factors on the arterial blood pressure (BP) values. The research was conducted in a group of 731 male and female full-time academic students who volunteered as participants in the study. The thickness of skinfolds was measured in three standard places. The percentage of fat was determined using the body composition analyzer. Body height and mass, waist circumference, hips and the largest right thigh circumference were measured and anthropometric indices calculated. The blood pressure values were measured according to the Korotkov method. Data were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods, oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis. The chi-square test of independence and linear regression analysis were used to assess impact of selected factors on BP values. High normal BP was found in 19% of women and 23% of men, and hypertension in 10% of women and 32% of men. Factors having a very high effect on BP values in both women and men were the somatic structure and fat content in the body. A positive correlation was found between subscapularis muscle fatty infiltration and BP values in both women and men. Majority of lifestyle factors were not associated with BP values but smoking and alcohol consumption. The field of study and level of physical activity were directly associated with high normal BP and hypertension. In conclusion it should be stated that high blood pressure is a growing problem in young adult people with men being more likely to be exposed to this condition than women.