that the Paris law exponent is significantly higher, specifically 10 for concrete ( Bažant and Xu, 1991 ).
8.9 Dynamic Loads, Seismicity, and Impact
Earth quakes are critical for design in many parts of the world. In order to ensure the required life-time, a structure must be able to withstand a seismicevent even towards the end of its service life after being subjected to years of environmental influences, sustained loads and cyclic loading. For dynamic and seismic analyses, inertia, the rate-dependence of strength, and dynamic material properties are of