This paper presents the results of the static work analysis of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beams strengthened with carbon fabric sheets (CFRP). Tested specimens were 45mm wide, 100 mm high, and 1700 mm long. Two types of strengthening arrangements were assumed as follows: 1. One layer of sheet bonded to the bottom face; 2. U-shape half-wrapped reinforcement; both sides wrapped to half of the height of the cross-section. The reinforcement ratios were 0.22% and 0.72%, respectively. In both cases, the FRP reinforcement was bonded along the entire span of the element by means of epoxy resin. The reinforcement of the elements resulted in an increase in the bending strength by 30% and 35%, respectively, as well as an increase in the global modulus of elasticity in bending greater than 20% for both configurations (in comparison to the reference elements).
J. Valíček, M. Harničárová, M. Kušnerová, J. Zavadil and R. Grznárik
The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm) for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in respect to variable technological conditions. On this basis it is then possible to calculate and plot individual main technological parameters.
Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFRP Composites, Archives of Civil Engineering, 56, 2, 111-122, 2010.
23. T. Urban, J. Tarka, Strengthening of Slab-Column Connections with CFRP Strips, Archives of Civil Engineering, 56, 2, 193-212, 2010.
24. A. Peiris, I. Harik, Field Testing of Steel Bridge Girders Strengthened Using Ultra High Modulus (UHM) Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Laminates, The 6th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, 13-15 June 2012, Rome, Conference Proceedings.