.html.  Bański J. Współczesne typologie obszarów wiejskich w Polsce - przegląd podejść metodologicznych (Contemporary typologies of rural areas in Poland - an overview of methodological approaches). Przegląd Geograficzny. 2014;84(4):441-470. http://www.rcin.org.pl/Content/51257/WA51_70537_r2014-t86-z4_Przeg-Geogr-Banski.pdf.
Tomasz Szul, Jarosław Knaga and Krzysztof Nęcka
, Radenković M, et al. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of metals in the atmospheric deposition in Belgrade. Atmos Environ. 2010;44:3630-3637.DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.06.045.  Bari MA, Baumbach G, Kuch B, Scheffknecht G. Particle-phase concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of rural residential areas in southern Germany. Air Qual Atmos Health. 2010;3:103-116. DOI: 10.1007/s11869-009-0057-8.  Reisen F, Meyer CP, McCaw L, Powell JC, Tolhurst K, Keywood MD, et al. Impact of smoke from biomass
References  Connan O, Maro D, Hebert D, Roubsard P, Goujon R, Lettelier B et al. Wet and dry deposition of particles associated metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) in a rural wetland site, Marais Vernier, France. Atmos Environ. 2013; 67:394-403. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.029.  Santachiara G, Prodi F, Belosi F. Atmospheric aerosol scavenging processes and the role of thermo- and diffusio-phoretic forces. Atmos Res. 2013;128:46-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.03.004.  Ebert P, Kibler M, Mainka A, Terbenken B, Baechmanj K, Frank G et al. A
Lokman Hakan Tecer, Sermin Tagil, Osman Ulukaya and Merve Ficici
oxides time series at four alpine GAW mountain stations in central Europe. Atmos Chem Phys. 2010;10:12295-12316. DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-12295-2010.  Tecer LH, Tagil S. Impact of urbanization on local air quality: differences in urban and rural areas of Balikesir, Turkey. Clean. 2014;42(11):1489-1499. DOI: 10.1002/clen.201200640.  Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 208 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:152:0001:0044:EN:PDF . [6
References  Connan O, Maro D, Hebert D, Roubsard P, Goujon R, Lettelier B et al. Wet and dry deposition of particles associated metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) in a rural wetland site, Marais Vernier, France. Atmos Environ. 2013;67:394-403. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.029.  Santachiara G, Prodi F, Belosi F. Atmospheric aerosol scavenging processes and the role of thermo- and diffusio-phoretic forces. Atmos Res. 2013;128:46-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.03.004.  Goncalves FF, Massambani O, Beheng KD, Vautz SW, Solci MC, Rocha V, et al
Monofloral rape, sunflower, linden and acacia honeys as well as honeys sampled within and around the Austrian towns Vienna and Linz, as well as in rural areas in Lower Austria, were analysed for main and trace elements. The results were tested to be used as indication of urban dust exposure. Main elements of the ash are K, P, and B, which are specific for plant origin. Ash based data correct for dilutions by the sugar matrix. They showed enrichments of Cu, Zn and Mo, whereas the contaminant elements Cd, Pb and Co were found at about the same levels as expectable in dust. Ash-based Al, Fe, Cr and Li were much lower than soil levels obtainable from aqua regia. Among the monofloral honey samples, the effect of adjacent soil was largest for Mn. Most differences between rural areas and urban areas in Vienna and Linz were within experimental errors, both per sample weight and per ash weight. In cases honey samples are considered to trace contaminations, the additional use of ash-based data is recommended.
Jiajun He, Huimin Zhang, Hui Zhang, Xuan Guo, Mingwei Song, Junhao Zhang and Xiaotao Li
The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in the fluvial sediment of the Beijiang River are described. The potential toxicity of this pollution was quantified using a consensus based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) method and the Hakanson potential ecological risk index. The concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cr were high enough to damage the sediment biota on a frequent basis. The potential ecological risk was much higher in the downstream, urbanized reaches of the river than in the upstream reaches which are still rural, but all sections of the river posed at least a moderate level of ecological risk. Estimates of the economic loss associated with these pollutions were appreciable, and were mainly due to Hg and Cu. The Beijiang River basin is heavily polluted, posing environmental risks for the downstream reaches of the Pearl River, and economic loss to the whole watershed.
Tomasz Ciesielczuk, Tomasz Olszowski, Marcin Prokop and Andrzej Kłos
The moss Pleurozium schreberi was used to evaluate the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Polish cemeteries on the All Saints' Day, when Poles traditionally light candles and candle lamps in memory of the deceased. Moss samples were exposed for 7 days at 4 cemeteries and, for comparison, in a city centre and in a rural area. During exposition, the mean content of 16 monitored PAHs in the samples increased by 455 ng/g at the cemeteries and by 689 ng g-1 in the city centre. In the rural area, the samples showed no statistically significant changes. PAHs whose content increased only in the moss samples exposed at the cemeteries included naphthalene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene together with benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene. The concentrations of other PAHs increased in samples exposed in the city centre and at two cemeteries located in the suburban areas. The results presented confirm the possibility of using mosses in biomonitoring of PAHs.
Adam Hofman, Jarosław Sowiński and Marek Dziubiński
The change in water quality in small water systems is strongly affected by sediment particles. Their transport, deposition and re-suspension due to variability in water demand has a significant impact on the change in water quality. Two significant mechanism of deposit transport and deposition i.e. turbophoresis and turbulent diffusion have been described in the literature. The paper presents the mechanisms of turbophoresis and turbulent diffusion. These phenomena have an impact on the quality of water in small water systems. The aim of the study is to propose procedures of identifying areas of mechanism of particle movement and their accumulation in small water system networks. Simulation of the flow of small water-pipe network at Niewiesz was used for the study. That water pipeline is situated in the central Poland. Many rural areas in Poland have a similar architecture. Modeling of movement of contaminant in close wall areas in pipelines is presented. The article presents the discussion concerning the areas where the mechanisms of turbophoresis and turbulent diffusion occur in the transport of solid particles in water supply systems. The relations between deposition and transporting of particles in turbulent flows depend on a number of parameters, including: particle size, localization of particles in the pipe (at given time), as well as the turbulence of flow. These parameters change depending on the water demand. The type of these changes depends on pipe diameters, material from which the pipes and the fittings are made, water demand and initial quality of water.
Robert Kalbarczyk, Eliza Kalbarczyk, Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak and Liliana Serafin
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