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Marquita Volken


Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming shoes. The question of why medieval military footwear shows no purposed development is addressed.

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A. Berro, Silvia Savin, D. Costea, Maria Tomita, Ana Maria Nichifor, Th.S. Nitu, M. Savin and V. Sarbu

associated with prosthetic repair of incisional hernias. Arch Surg. 133, 378-382 5. Morris-Stiff, G.J. &, Hughes, L.E. (1998). The outcomes of nonabsorbable mesh placed within the abdominal cavity: literature review and clinical experience. J Am Coll Surg. 186, 352-367 6. Martinez, J.L., Luque-de Leon, E. & Ballinas- Oseguera, G. et al. (2012). Factors Predictive of Recurrence and Mortality after Surgical Repair of Enterocutaneous Fistula. J Gastrointest Surg. 16(1), 156-163; discussion 163-164 7. Soler, M., Verhaeghe, P

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Natalija Ezite, Janis Savlovskis, Marcis Gedins, Kaspars Kisis, Polina Dombure and Dainis Krievins

:492-497. 8. Chaer RA, Gushchin A, Rhee R, Marone L, Cho JS, Leers S, Makaroun MS. Duplex ultrasound as the sole long-term surveillance method postendovascular aneurysm repair: a safe alternative for stable aneurysms // J Vasc Surg, 2009 Apr; 49(4):845-9; discussion 849-50. 9. Chisci E, Setacci F, Iacoponi F, de Donato G, Cappelli A, Setacci C. Surveillance imaging modality does not affect detection rate of asymptomatic secondary interventions following EVAR // Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, 2012 Mar; 43(3):276-81. 10. Clair DG, Gray B, O’Hara PJ

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Jan Rutkowski


The 90th anniversary of the appearance of Atlas Polski Continental dla automobilistów (Continental Atlas of Poland for Automobilists) published by Continental Caoutchouc Compagnie Ltd Warsaw is nearing. The Atlas was the first publication of its kind after Poland had regained its independence in 1918.

After mentioning the earlier 19th and the beginning of 20th century road maps, mainly from the region known as the Kingdom of Poland being at the time under the rule of the Russian Empire, the author of the article discusses the Continental road atlas.

The date of publishing the Continental road atlas is not known, therefore in the article the author makes an attempt at establishing it on the basis of the map’s contents: railroad lines, settlement network and administrative borders. Unfortunately, the study does not allow one to unequivocally state the date of publication due to numerous shortcomings in the map’s contents. Nevertheless, the date may be estimated as the beginning of the year 1926.

The atlas consists of 20 single-sided map sheets (foldouts) at the scale of 1:1,000,000, which cover the whole territory of Poland as well as some parts of neighboring countries, and a general map showing the division into sheets. The maps’ main contents consists of five categories of roads marked in red. Their background is composed of railroad lines, towns and villages in seven size classes according to the number of inhabitants, water network, some peaks and passes as well as mountain range names. Explanations of map symbols in the legend are given in five languages: Polish, Russian, German, French, English.

The atlas very clearly shows the differences in the density and quality of roads between the regions of the Prussian and Austrian partitions and the road infrastructure-wise neglected Russian partition, especially its eastern part. Apart from mileage information for roads, the maps do not contain additional information specifically for motorists. They do not even show petrol stations or auto repair shops.

What is really worth praise is the sole idea of creating such an automobile atlas and publishing it in 10,000 copies, a copy for every other Polish driver at the time! The fact speaks for the publisher’s, Continental Caoutchouc Compagnie’s, perspective. Despite numerous shortcomings discussed in the article, the Continental Atlas of Poland for Automobilists remains an unique work, which gave a beginning to a new kind of maps in Poland.

Open access

Jacek Lorkowski, Leszek Brongel, Waldemar Hładki, Piotr Budzyński, Magdalena Żeglin, Marek Kuliś, Rafał Nazimek and Piotr Guzik

References Świerczyński R, Śmigielski R, Mioduszewski A: Uszkodzenia ścięgna piętowego leczone operacyjnie z programem rehabilitacji bez unieruchomienia gipsowego - wczesne wyniki 12 przypadków. Acta Clinica 2001; 2:152-60. Astrom M : Partial rupture in chronic achilles tendinopathy. A retrospective analysis of 342 cases. Acta Orthop Scand 1998; 69: 404-07. Beskin JL, Sanders RA, Hunter SC et al.: Surgical repair of Achilles tendon ruptures. Am J Sports Med 1987; 15: 1

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Jakub Kenig, Piotr Richter and Marcin Barczyński

-11. 4. Crescentini F, Deutsch F, Walter Sobrado C, de Araújo S: Umbilical mass as the sole presenting symptom of pancreatic cancer: a case report. Rev Hosp Clín Fac Med S. Paulo 2004; 59(4):198-202. 5. Millar RC, Geelhoed GW, Ketcham AS: Ovarian cancer presenting as umbilical hernia. J Surg Oncol 1975; 7: 493-96. 6. Bender E, Schmidt S: Malignancies Presenting with Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia: A Case Report. The Internet J Surg 2001;3(2): 127-29. 7. Rutkow IM, Robbins AW: Demographic, classificatory and socioeconomic

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Irina Ovchinnikova

. Bondarko, L. V., Volskaya, N. B., Tananaiko, S. O., & Vasilieva, L. A. (2003). Phonetic properties of Russian spontaneous speech. In M.-J. Solé (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 2973-2976). Barcelona: ICPhS Organizing Committee. Brocki, K. C., & Bohlin, G. (2004). Executive functions in children aged 6 to 13: A dimensional and developmental study. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(2), 571-593. doi: 10.1207/s15326942dn2602_3 Bokus, B. (2004). Inter-mind phenomena in child narrative discourse

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Andika C. Putra, Keiji Tanimoto, Elisna Syahruddin, Sita Andarini, Yoshio Hosoi and Keiko Hiyama

, Shrine N, Kalsheker N, Soler Artigas M, Repapi E, et al.A comprehensive evaluation of potential lung function associated genes in the SpiroMeta general population sample. PLoS One. 2011; 6:e19382. 32. Artigas MS, Loth DW, Wain LV, Gharib SA, Obeidat M, Tang W, et al. Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function. Nat Genet. 2011; 43:1082-90. 33. Soler Artigas M, Wain LV, Repapi E, Obeidat M, Sayers I, Burton PR, et al. Effect of five genetic variants associated with lung function on

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Sabina Ionita, Serban Popescu and Ioan Lascar

., Taskin U., Oktay M.F., at al. - The Results of Polypropylene Mesh Usage for Nasal Septal Perforation Repair: An Experimental Study. Available at: 38. Pierce L.M., Asarias J.R., Nguyen P.T., Mings J.R., Gehrich A.P. - Inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase expression induced by collagen-coated and uncoated polypropylene meshes in a rat model. Am J Obstet Gynecol., 2011;205(1):82.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j. ajog.2011.02.045. Epub 2011 Feb 23. 39. Dias F.G.F., Prudente

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Alfredo Briones-Aranda, Javier Ramírez-Carballo, Bernardo Alfredo Romero Gómez, Victor Manuel Vega Villa, Manuela Castellanos Pérez, Esmeralda Garcia Parra and Hugo Roberto Santeliz-Montero

-risk patients with type 2 diabetes: an optical coherence tomography study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 13:117, 2014. 24. Edsfeldt A, Gonçalves I, Grufman H, et al . Impaired fibrous repair: a possible contributor to atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in patients with type II diabetes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 34: 2143-50, 2014. 25. Lynch CP, Strom Williams J, Voronca D, Walker RJ, Egede LE . Meaning of Illness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Educ 42: 220-227, 2016. 26. Rissling MB, Gray KE, Ulmer CS et al