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Māra Kūka, Ilze Čakste and Endija Geršebeka


Birch and maple saps contain carbohydrates and organic acids, B complex vitamins and vitamin C, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and mineral substances. The aim of the study was to quantitatively determine the concentrations of bioactive compounds and mineral substances in Latvian birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and maple (Acer platanoides L.) saps. Electrical conductivity was determined (629 and 967 S/cm in birch and maple saps, respectively) to characterise the total amount of mineral substances. In birch and maple saps the titratable acidity (0.50 and 0.70 mmol of NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) and formol number (0.25 and 0.20 mmol NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) were determined. The protein concentration was found to be higher in maple sap (171 and 127 mg/l, respectively). The antioxidant concentration, determined using quercetin as a standard, was 0.35 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/l in birch sap and 0.77 mg QE/l in maple sap. In conclusion, Latvian maple sap contains more bioactive and mineral compounds than birch sap. Latvian birch sap contains up to 20% more glucose and fructose than birch sap produced in Finland, but Latvian maple sap contains 10 to 40% less sucrose than sap produced in North America.

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Maija Dzintare, Larisa Baumane, Dainuvīte Meirena, Jeļena Šaripova, Lāsma Ļauberte, Ivars Kalviņš and Nikolajs Sjakste

.G. (2005). Resveratrol, an extract of red wine, inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced airway neutrophilia and inflammatory mediators through an NF-kappaB-independent mechanism. FASEB J. , 19 (7), 840-841. Chen, C.K., Pace-Asciak, C.R. (1996). Vasorelaxing activity of resveratrol and quercetin in isolated rat aorta. Gen. Pharmacol. , 27 (2), 363-366. Cíz, M., Pavelkovį, M., Gallovį, L., Krįlovį, J., Kubala, L., Lojek, A. (2008). The influence of wine polyphenols on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production by

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Līga Prieciņa and Daina Kārkliņa

-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A , 913 , 387–395. Dall’Acqua, S., Miolo, G., Innocenti, G., Caffieri, S. (2012). The photodegradation of quercetin: Relation to oxidation. Molecules , 17 , 8898–8907. Erkan, N., Cetin, H., Ayranci, E. (2011). Antioxidant activities of Sideritis congesta Davis et Huber-Morath and Sideritis araguta Boiss et Heldr: Identification of free flavonoids and cinnamic acid derivatives. Food Res. Int., 44 , 297–303. Garcia-Salas, P., Morales-Soto, A., Segura-Carretero, A., Fernandez-Gutierrez, A. (2010). Phenolic

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Elga Šnē, Ruta Galoburda and Dalija Segliņa

, R. S., Tappia, S. P., Dhalla, N. S. (2011). Health benefits of sea buckthorn for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. J. Funct. Foods , 3 , 2-12. Xu, X., Xie, B., Pan, S., Liu, L., Wang, Y., Chen, C. (2007). Effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr ., 16 (1), 234-238. Zu, Y., Li, C., Fu, Y., Zhao, C. (2006). Simultaneous determination of catechin, rutin, quercetin kaempferol and isorhamnetin in the extract of sea buckthorn ( Hippophae