of different mulberry ( Morus sp.) species from China. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57:9133-9140. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9022228 20. Lee NK, Jeong JH, Oh J, Kim Y, Ha YS, Jeong Y-S. Conversion of flavonols kaempferol and quercetin in mulberry ( Morus alba L.) leaf using plant-fermenting lactobacillus plantarum. J Food Biochem 2015; 39: 765-770. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12176 21. Zou Y, Liao S, Shen W, Liu F, Tang C, Chen CHYO, Sun Y. Phenolics and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves depend on cultivar and harvest month in southern
Krzysztof Przygoński and Elżbieta Wojtowicz
Marcin Ożarowski, Radosław Kujawski, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Karolina Wielgus, Andrzej Klejewski, Hubert Wolski and Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz
REFERENCES 1. Fairbairn J W (ed.). The pharmacology of plant phenolics. Academic Press INC. New York 1959. 2. Ożarowski M, Mikołajczak PŁ, Kujawski R, Wielgus K, Klejewski A, Wolski H et al. Phar-macological effect of quercetin in hypertension and its potential application in pregnancy-induced hypertension: review of in vitro , in vivo , and clinical studies. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018:7421489. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7421489 3. Zhao Q, Chen XY, Martin C. Scutellaria baicalensis , the golden herb from the garden of
R. Ahmad and A. Srivastava
Glutathione S-transferase(s); GST(s) (E.C. 220.127.116.11) are a large family of multifunctional dimeric enzymes that conjugate reduced glutathione to electrophilic centres in hydrophobic organic compounds. GST(s) represent the major class of detoxifying enzymes from parasitic helminths. The GST enzymatic activity has been described in the adult and larval stages of helminths. Several forms and isoforms of the enzyme have been purified and GST genes have also been isolated and expressed as recombinant proteins. The helminth GST(s) participate in detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and cytotoxic carbonyl compounds produced by oxygen-reactive intermediates (ORIs). The ORIs can come from the endogenous parasite metabolism or from the host immune system. The helminth GST(s) are able to conjugate glutathione to xenobiotic compounds or to bind to the anthelminth drugs. GST is usually found to be localized near to host-parasite interface. This enzyme has been identified as a potentially vulnerable target in immunotherapy and chemotherapy of parasitic diseases. The most effective drug candidates are those based on inhibitors of GST. In the present study, purified GST from cytosolic fraction of bovine filarial worms Setaria cervi was inhibited in a concentration dependent fashion by various compounds such as hemin, ethacrynic acid, S-hexylglutathione, quercetin, cibacron blue, lithocholate sulfate and ellagic acid. Cytosolic GST was inhibited to varying degrees by each inhibitor. In this context, the possible physiological significance of the observed results has been discussed.
Justyna Chanaj-Kaczmarek, Małgorzata Wojcińska and Irena Matławska
Coltsfoot leaves (Farfarae folium) are used in the European medicine in respiratory tract diseases, for cough, bronchitis and asthmatic disorders, while in the traditional Chinese medicine only flower buds (Farfarae flos) have been recognized as a medicine. A short literature review shows that most data concern the chemical composition of the coltsfoot flowers. During the carried out studies we have isolated and identified (UV, 1H and 13C NMR, analysis of acid and enzymatic hydrolyze products) six known flavonols from the coltsfoot leaves: kaempferol and its 3-O-β-glucopyranoside and 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)- β-glucopyranoside, along with quercetin derivatives: 3-O-β-arabinopyranoside, 3-O-β- glucopyranoside and 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside. Moreover, we have detected the presence of three phenolic acids.
Elżbieta Nowak, Michał Jakub Nachajski and Marian Mikołaj Zgoda
Model maidenhair tree (Ginkgo bilobae) leaf extracts were created basing on medium of diversified polarity (εM). Chromatographic analysis was performed with the HPLC method, with the so-called dry residue remaining after evaporating the dissolving agent from saturated aqueous solutions and from 0.1 mol HCl. Viscosity measure and surface activity estimations were conducted on phase boundary. Then, basic values of viscosity ([η], Mη) and hydrodynamic values (Ro, Robs., Ω) were calculated. Moreover, reference quercetin and rutin (rutoside) were used to mark the conversion contents of flavonoids in produced extracts with the UV method.
Introduction: Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) is an important medicinal plant, indigenous to Asia. Due to a wide range of pharmacological activities, its roots has been used for ages in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recently, the species has become an object of interest of Western medicine, as well. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the variability of Baikal skullcap population originated from Mongolia and cultivated in Poland, in terms of content and composition of flavonoids in the roots. Methods: The objects of the study were 15 individual plants, selected within examined population and cloned in order to obtain a sufficient amount of raw material. The total content of flavonoids in roots was determined according to Polish Pharmacopeia 6th. The qualitative analysis of flavonoids was carried out using HPLC, Shimadzu chromatograph. Results: The dry mass of roots ranged from 25.88 to 56.14 g × plant-1. The total content of flavonoids (expressed as a quercetin equivalent) varied between 0.17 and 0.52% dry matter (DM). Nine compounds were detected within the group, with oroxylin A 7-Oglucuronide (346.90-1063.00 mg × 100 g-1 DM) as a dominant, which differentiated investigated clones at the highest degree (CV=0.27). Baicalin (391.40-942.00 mg × 100 g-1 DM), wogonoside (324.00-641.10 mg × 100 g-1 DM) and hesperetine 7-O-glucoside (163.00-346.32 mg × 100 g-1 DM) were also present in a considerable amounts. Clone 7 was distinguished by the highest content of all investigated compounds, except wogonin and oroxylin A 7-O-glucuronide. Conclusions: Results obtained in present study show a high variability within Baical skullcap investigated population in respect of flavonoid compounds detected in roots. Thus, the results may be used in future investigations concerning the selection and breeding of this species.
Anna Forycka, Artur Adamczak, Bogna Opala, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska and Waldemar Buchwald
Introduction: The inflorescence of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifying properties and is traditionally used in liver and biliary tract diseases. Because of its difficult and expensive cultivation, the plant raw material is mainly harvested from natural sites.
Objective: The research aimed to determine the local variation in yield and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the yellow everlasting inflorescence against the background of the layer structure of vegetation as the rate of plant succession.
Methods: The plant raw material was collected from 30 plots of 1 m2, established for three separate populations developing on sandy fallows near Zielona Góra (western Poland). For each study area, percentage cover of the moss-lichen and herb layers, the height, cover and yield of H. arenarium as well as the height and cover of other herbaceous plants were determined. Total contents of flavonoids (expressed as quercetin) and phenolic acids (calculated as caffeic acid) were measured spectrophotometrically, according to Polish Pharmacopoeia.
Results: Everlastings reached a cover of up to 70% and the maximum air-dry matter yield of 46.42 g/m2. The height, coverage and yield of H. arenarium were correlated with the parameters describing the herb layer. The content of flavonoids ranged from 0.56 to 0.99%, while that of phenolic acids from 0.82 to 1.80% DM.
Conclusions: Yellow everlasting is an important species of early fallows on poor sandy soils and these habitats constitute a rich natural source of herbal raw material. Inflorescences harvested from natural sites are distinguished by a high and similar content of polyphenols and usually meet the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia.
Artur Adamczak, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska and Waldemar Buchwald
Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L.) is an adaptogenic plant, widely used in the traditional medicine of Scandinavia, Russia, China and Mongolia. The aim of the study was to determine the biometric and phytochemical co-variability of this species under field cultivation in western Poland (Plewiska near Poznań). The plant material originated from four-year-old cultivation established twice by rhizome division in autumn 2007 and 2008. In the study, 46 individuals (23 plants in 2011 and in 2012) were used. The biometric analysis included measurements of the basic characteristics of plants related to the size (luxuriance) of clumps, shoots, leaves and rhizomes with roots (raw material). The amounts of total polyphenols (expressed as gallic acid), tannins (expressed as pyrogallol) and flavonoids (expressed as quercetin) were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results showed high variation of Rh. rosea, especially in the level of flavonoids (0.01-0.20% DM) and in the weight of raw material (113-1156 g FM/plant). There were observed correlations between the phytochemical (flavonoid and total phenolic content) and biometric (water content, leaf number, shoot and clump size) features.
Ewa Grzebyk and Agnieszka Piwowar
Introduction: Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are the main products of glycoxidative modification in diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the natural substance with the strongest antiglycoxidative properties among dietary supplements or medicines available without prescription in Poland. Methods: Bovine serum albumin (BSA), vitamin C (VC), aminoguanidine (A), quercetin (Q) and green tea (GT) were tested in vitro in comparison to controls in glycation, oxidation and glycoxidation processes. The decreased AGE and AOPP concentrations were measured as markers of these processes. Results: AGE level was reduced by 72% by VC and at least by 43% by all examined substances in the glycation process. AOPP was reduced by 99% by VC and at least by 40% by all examined substances in the oxidation process. Formation of AGE/AOPP was inhibited by 61% by Q and by 97% by A, and at least 49/88% by all examined substances, respectively. This lowering of AGE/AOPP level was statistically significant (p<0.001) for all test substances in comparison to the positive control C(+). Conclusion: All examined substances are able to inhibit glycative, oxidative and glycoxidative modification of proteins in different degrees depending on their concentration.
Mohaddese Mahboubi and Atefeh Mahboubi
AM, Vijetha V. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of some Indian Capparis Species. Pharmacog Rev 2008; 2(4):36-45. 18. Moghaddasian B, Eradatmand Asli D, Alaghemand A. Quantitative analysis of quercetin in different parts of Capparis spinosa by HPLC. Ann Biol Res 2012; 3(12):5775-5778. 19. Ahmed ZF, Rizk AM, Hammouda FM, Seif El-Nasr MM. Glucosinolates of Egyptian Capparis species. Phytochem 1972; 11(1):251-256. 20. Romeo V, Ziino M, Giuffrida D, Condurso C, Verzera A. Flavour profile of