The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University, Collegium Historicum, Institute of Prehistory
Waldemar W. Budner and Sławomir Palicki
The aim of this study is to determine the current role of trade as a town developing factor. The analysis was made on the example of a middle-size town - Leszno. During only the last few years a lot of have taken place in Leszno concerning the quality and quantity of trade as well as location of it in the town space. This study contains the analysis and assessment of changes in Leszno retail trade in the years 2010-2012. The survey was the basis for the assessment of the town prestige as a subregional trade centre, appraisal of the trade system, the arrangement of trade points in the town, the appeal of the town and its centre as a result of building new shopping malls.
Systemic transformation in Poland after the Second World War led to deep transformations within the economy. It did not, however, change the way people thought. Despite the chaos of the post-war period, in which all the negative features shaped in the period of occupation manifested themselves, it seemed that the conceptual leaders of the Polish political and economic life would create new quality. However, it soon turned out that old habits die hard and the system created by communists opened a field for many abuses. This was accompanied by a sense of impunity, as the most prominent personalities in a given region were also involved in economic scandals. All this resulted in the creation of “cliques” in which both prominent Party activists and people put by the Party in high positions (usually also members of the Polish United Workers’ Party, PUWP) played important roles. On the one hand, after 1956, surveillance by the Security Office (UB) or Security Services (SB) was not that strict anymore, and on the other, the so-called “private initiative” started to develop fast – therefore the more “entrepreneurial” individuals started to exploit the situation and gain wealth. Abusing one’s position to organize large-scale thefts was considered relatively normal. This happened in various forms: sometimes directly, but more often by supporting or even organizing private projects with the use of the national, though unsupervised, supply of raw materials or products. This way, the Party members grew richer at the expense of the companies they worked for. This business was relatively widely tolerated by ordinary citizens, who saw it as an excuse to also “organize” goods individually for their own purposes in the companies which employed them. This common belief that “everybody steals” allowed people to justify their own dishonesty. Any attempts to fight this problem failed to produce satisfactory results. The diagnosis, even if correct, had to face reality, in which the pursuit of a better quality of life by the Party elites collided with the officially promoted ascetic lifestyles of the “ideological communists”, who, like Władysław Gomułka, did not understood the new times.
item 301 Decree of November 16, 1945 on the creation and the scope of activity of the Special Commission for Fighting with Fraud and Economic Abuse, Journal of Laws, no. 53, item 302. Decree of June 13, 1946 on crimes posing a special threat in the period of state reconstruction [Journal of Laws, no. 30, item 192]. Decree of March 4 1953 on increasing collective property protection, Journal of Laws, no. 17, item 68. Decree of March 4, 1953 on intensifying the fight against low quality in production, socialist Poland Journal of Laws, no. 16
Tomasz Goslar, Viktor I. Klochko, Aleksander Kośko, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz
of Radiocarbon Chronology of Cultures Between the Vistula and Dnieper: 4000- -1000 BC. Baltic-Pontic Studies 12: 132-184. van Klinken G.J. 1999 Bone collagen quality indicators for palaeodietary and radiocarbon measurements. Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 687-695. Yarovoy E.V. 1981 Kurhan yamnoi kultury u s. Khrustovaia. In: Arkheologicheskie issledovaniya v Moldavii (1974-1976 gg.), 45-58. Kishinev. Yarovoy E.V., Tserna S.V., Popovici S.S. 2012 Pozdnetripolskyiy mogilnik u s. Oksentia (Dubossarskyi rayon
The spade-shaped staters from the area characterized by the Púchov Culture in Slovakia differ from other Celtic coins by their special spade-shaped form and also by their material. The known types of the spade-shaped staters were made – with some exceptions – of alloy with different portions of gold and silver. The first stater here, because of its weight, characteristic shape and finding place (near Dubnica nad Váhom, Slovakia), could be classified under the type preceding all other types of the spade-shaped staters. The second piece – a part cut from a spade-shaped stater – represents a contemporary forgery of the same type as it is in the case of the previous coin. The core of the forged specimen is made of high-quality silver plated by a thick gold foil. This kind of forgeries is known mainly from the Hellenistic period, these pieces come from the Macedonian-Thracian region, and they appeared in the Celtic milieu starting with the 3rd century BC.
The article is focused on problems with the so-called imitative coins, i.e. deniers copying the Bavarian and Bohemian prototypes which are documented in hoards together with official issues. In the case of the earliest phase of production of the first Bohemian coins – dating to the third quarter of the 10th century – also the so-called imitative pieces with corruptive marginal legends are registered in the contemporary hoards together with the official coins bearing the name of the duke and the mint. The author brings an actualized list of these coins produced in that period and found locally. The pieces made of worse-quality metal – mostly with plated copper core – dominate among the newly documented specimens predominantly coming from important hillforts or trade centers. Based on the map of the finds and on the variability of their fabric, at least a significant part of these coins were evidently mostly produced outside of the center of the Duchy of Bohemia (Prague). Local origin can be considered also in the case of the Moravian pieces.