-215.  K. Ishibashi: “Maintaining Quality of Service Based on ITIL-Based IT Service Management,” FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., 2007, 43, p. 334-344. http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/MAG/vol43-3/paper11.pdf.  ITU-T Recommendations. http://www.itu.int/itu-t/recommendations/index.aspx?ser=E  J. Jormakka and K. Heikkinen: “QoS/GOS parameter definitions and measurement in IP/ATM networks,” QofIS’2000, Berlin, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1922, (ed. J. Crowcroft, J. Roberts, M. Smirnow), Springer-Verlag, 2000, p. 182
Anne Koskinen and Jorma Jormakka
Claes Wallenius, Charlotte Bäccman and Gerry Larsson
Military staff performance may be inferior due to several reasons. The purpose of the present survey was to study the impact of stress reactions, personality factors, situation awareness, and maladaptive group dynamics on the quality of the decision-making in Swedish high-level military staffs. Participants were mainly captains and majors, but also lieutenant colonels and colonels took part (n = 256, 61 % response rate). A mainly self-made questionnaire was administered in two staff exercises. Maladaptive group dynamics, stress exposure, lack of situation awareness, and negative stress reactions were the strongest predictors of poor staff performance, while personality had less impact.
Hans Liwång, Marika Ericson and Martin Bang
Today several nations utilise risk based approaches in military planning. However, the discussion on limitations with the approaches in regard to aspects such as uncertainties, the nature of the threat and risk to civilians is limited.
The aim of this work is to identify important challenges when applying risk based approaches to military activity. This article discusses risk based approaches in general and their military applications. Five generic quality requirements on risk analysis are presented from research in risk philosophy. Two military application areas for risk analysis: military intelligence, and risk management in legal assessments are analysed in relation to the presented quality requirements on risk analysis.
From the analysis it is clear that risk analysis is an integral part of the decision-making analysis and cannot be separated in time, space or organisationally from the decision-making process in general. Defining the scenario to analyse, including the time span, is a central task in risk analysis and will affect every aspect of the risk estimation. Therefore, the principles for scenario definition must be communicated and continuously updated throughout the organisation. Handling the uncertainties throughout the process is also important, especially if the aim is a resilient military system.
Juhani Hämäläinen, Jari Sormunen, Jari Rantapelkonen and Juha-Pekka Nikkarila
Wargames are important methods for military planning, education and research. Qualitative models have a long tradition in wargaming for improving and practising the military skills as well as enhancing the military planning based on the experiences and understanding of the experts. Quantitative models are included in simulations and technical studies. Traditionally, the relations between the qualitative and quantitative research have been described as opposites. We shall consider both the approaches, their challenges and possibilities, and their combination for producing more exhaustive wargame and for answering to the criticism of wargame as a mainly qualitative method.
Our main research question is: How to combine quantitative and qualitative approaches and methods to improve quality of results of military wargames? Our main objective is to clarify and illustrate how qualitative and quantitative methods can be combined through the wargame. We shall emphasize the importance of the model selection at the beginning as it limits and guides the form (not the content) of the obtained results. We shall illustrate a combined wargame within different steps and the modelling themes of the game. Our results and findings should be useful for improving and focusing wargames to answer given research questions.
G.L.A. Harris, Ayanna Shivers and Patricia Deuster
Press, June 24. Berwick, D.M. 2002. A User’s Manual for the IoM’s ‘Quality Chasm’ Report. Health Affairs, 21, 3, 60-87. Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carillo, J.E., and Park, E.R. 2005. Cultural Competence and Health Care Disparities: Key Perspectives on Trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499-505. Bigard, Xavier., Koulmann, Natalie., Banzet, Sebastien., Sanchez, Herve., and Malgoyre, Alexandra. 2009. Are There Ethical Limitations for Improving Physical Performance in Soldiers? The Research and Technology (RTO) Organisation
Pankaj Sharma and Makarand S Kulkarni
estimate the quality of information using BBNs. Falzon (2006) Describes a centre of gravity (COG) analysis by military commanders. COG is affected by a number of critical capabilities (CCs), with each CC having a number of critical requirements (CRs), which in turn have critical vulnerabilities (CVs) that are targeted through a proper course of action. The authors use causal probabilistic networks to represent the relationships among the CCs and CRs for a COG construct. 2.4 Research gaps Most of the research into applications of BNs in the
Alicia Ohlsson, Erik Hedlund and Gerry Larsson
responded on a seven-point Likert scale, with score one representing the lowest (strongly disagree) and seven the highest (strongly agree). This was measured through the following five questions: (1) Recently, this team seems to be “slipping” a bit in its level of performance and accomplishment, (2) Those who receive or use the work this team does often have complaints about their work, (3) The quality of work provided by this team is improving over time, (4) Critical quality errors occur frequently in this team and (5) Members of the staff within the Headquarters or in
Michael Essig, Andreas H. Glas and Simon Mondry
), weiterer Abgeordneter und der Fraktion der SPD (Drucksache 17/2522). BWB (2011), Vorhaben SPz Puma - Darstellung der Fahrzeugpreisentwicklung von 12/2004 bis 2011, Koblenz 2011. Camp, R.C., (1989), Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance, Quality Resources, New York. Christensen, D.S./Searle, D.A./Vickery, C. (1999), The impact of the packard commission`s recommendations on reducing cost overruns on defense acquisition contracts, in: Acquisition Review Quarterly, Summer 1999
Helga Myrseth, Sigurd William Hystad, Reidar Säfvenbom and Olav Kjellevold Olsen
of military performance and skills can be achieved by improving either selection procedures so that individuals who possess the desirable attributes and traits are selected for military training or the training of desirable skills and qualities. Although research on military performance has expanded during the past few years, less research has been carried out on the specific military skills needed to obtain successful performance and especially what enhances the development of these military skills. A study on specific military skills found that operational