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Studia Historiae Oeconomicae

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University

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Baltic-Pontic Studies

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University, Collegium Historicum, Institute of Prehistory

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Waldemar W. Budner and Sławomir Palicki

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the current role of trade as a town developing factor. The analysis was made on the example of a middle-size town - Leszno. During only the last few years a lot of have taken place in Leszno concerning the quality and quantity of trade as well as location of it in the town space. This study contains the analysis and assessment of changes in Leszno retail trade in the years 2010-2012. The survey was the basis for the assessment of the town prestige as a subregional trade centre, appraisal of the trade system, the arrangement of trade points in the town, the appeal of the town and its centre as a result of building new shopping malls.

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Stanisław Jankowiak

Abstract

Systemic transformation in Poland after the Second World War led to deep transformations within the economy. It did not, however, change the way people thought. Despite the chaos of the post-war period, in which all the negative features shaped in the period of occupation manifested themselves, it seemed that the conceptual leaders of the Polish political and economic life would create new quality. However, it soon turned out that old habits die hard and the system created by communists opened a field for many abuses. This was accompanied by a sense of impunity, as the most prominent personalities in a given region were also involved in economic scandals. All this resulted in the creation of “cliques” in which both prominent Party activists and people put by the Party in high positions (usually also members of the Polish United Workers’ Party, PUWP) played important roles. On the one hand, after 1956, surveillance by the Security Office (UB) or Security Services (SB) was not that strict anymore, and on the other, the so-called “private initiative” started to develop fast – therefore the more “entrepreneurial” individuals started to exploit the situation and gain wealth. Abusing one’s position to organize large-scale thefts was considered relatively normal. This happened in various forms: sometimes directly, but more often by supporting or even organizing private projects with the use of the national, though unsupervised, supply of raw materials or products. This way, the Party members grew richer at the expense of the companies they worked for. This business was relatively widely tolerated by ordinary citizens, who saw it as an excuse to also “organize” goods individually for their own purposes in the companies which employed them. This common belief that “everybody steals” allowed people to justify their own dishonesty. Any attempts to fight this problem failed to produce satisfactory results. The diagnosis, even if correct, had to face reality, in which the pursuit of a better quality of life by the Party elites collided with the officially promoted ascetic lifestyles of the “ideological communists”, who, like Władysław Gomułka, did not understood the new times.

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Jędrzej Chumiński

item 301 Decree of November 16, 1945 on the creation and the scope of activity of the Special Commission for Fighting with Fraud and Economic Abuse, Journal of Laws, no. 53, item 302. Decree of June 13, 1946 on crimes posing a special threat in the period of state reconstruction [Journal of Laws, no. 30, item 192]. Decree of March 4 1953 on increasing collective property protection, Journal of Laws, no. 17, item 68. Decree of March 4, 1953 on intensifying the fight against low quality in production, socialist Poland Journal of Laws, no. 16

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Tomasz Goslar, Viktor I. Klochko, Aleksander Kośko, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz

of Radiocarbon Chronology of Cultures Between the Vistula and Dnieper: 4000- -1000 BC. Baltic-Pontic Studies 12: 132-184. van Klinken G.J. 1999 Bone collagen quality indicators for palaeodietary and radiocarbon measurements. Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 687-695. Yarovoy E.V. 1981 Kurhan yamnoi kultury u s. Khrustovaia. In: Arkheologicheskie issledovaniya v Moldavii (1974-1976 gg.), 45-58. Kishinev. Yarovoy E.V., Tserna S.V., Popovici S.S. 2012 Pozdnetripolskyiy mogilnik u s. Oksentia (Dubossarskyi rayon

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Anne Koskinen and Jorma Jormakka

-215. [13] K. Ishibashi: “Maintaining Quality of Service Based on ITIL-Based IT Service Management,” FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., 2007, 43, p. 334-344. http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/MAG/vol43-3/paper11.pdf. [14] ITU-T Recommendations. http://www.itu.int/itu-t/recommendations/index.aspx?ser=E [15] J. Jormakka and K. Heikkinen: “QoS/GOS parameter definitions and measurement in IP/ATM networks,” QofIS’2000, Berlin, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1922, (ed. J. Crowcroft, J. Roberts, M. Smirnow), Springer-Verlag, 2000, p. 182

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Confrontation and Cooperation: 1000 Years of Polish-German-Russian Relations

The Journal of Kolegium Jagiellonskie Torunska Szkola Wyzsza

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Law and Administration in Post-Soviet Europe

The Journal of Kolegium Jagiellonskie Torunska Szkola Wyzsza