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Slurry shield tunneling in soft ground. Comparison between field data and 3D numerical simulation

installation of the shield), the lining is installed at the rear of the shield. The grout elements are then activated in their liquid state with the application of the injection pressure on the boundary of the excavated tunnel and lining external face. After installing five tunnel rings with lining elements at the back of the shield (the average advance of TBM in this project is 5 m a day), the injection pressure is deactivated gradually and the mechanical characteristics of the grout changed to the hardened ones. This procedure is repeated throughout the shield progression

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