Kevin W. Zobrist, Lauren A. Grand and Mary A. Rozance
Landscape urbanization and fragmentation, spread of invasive pests, biodiversity loss, social value changes, and loss of manufacturing infrastructure are some of the changing ecological, economic and environmental framework conditions facing small-scale forest owners in northwest Washington State, USA. To successfully adapt to these changes, landowners’ knowledge framework must change. Washington State University Extension has been offering comprehensive, multi-week training courses for small-scale forest owners. From 2008 - 2013, participants were surveyed at the conclusion of the training, one year following the training, and again at three years following the training. These follow-up surveys demonstrate a progression from knowledge change to behaviour (management) change and, ultimately, to condition change. Condition changes included increased wildlife diversity, decreased invasive species cover, and increased economic sustainability. The results demonstrate that changing a landowner’s knowledge framework through education is a highlyeffective approach for helping them successfully adapt to changing external framework conditions.
Oluwafemi Babatunde Oduntan, Emmanuel Kolawole Ajani and Bamidele Oluwarotimi Omitoyin
Technology 4: 60–63.
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Obayelu Abiodun Elijah, Lawal Iyabode Balikis and Omotuyole Isiaka Ambali
and the Challenge of Sustainability (J. Goldemberg, ed.). New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme.
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Victor De Araujo, Claudia Nogueira, Antonio Savi, Marcos Sorrentino, Elen Morales, Juliana Cortez-Barbosa, Maristela Gava and José Garcia
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Abdul Razaque Memon, Christiane Katja Schwager and Karsten Niehaus
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Leah Quinn, Steven G. Gray, Steven Meaney, Stephen Finn, Owen Kenny and Maria Hayes
). Anthocyanins derived from black raspberries, along with the main anthocyanin metabolite PCA, were studied in N -nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced oesophageal tumours in rats. PCA delayed the formation of pre-neoplastic lesions and the progression of these lesions to papillomas, ultimately reducing NMBA-induced oesophageal carcinogenesis. PCA also induced the expression of PTX3, which was shown to possess anti-angiogenic and anti-tumourigenic activity in prostate cancer cells ( Peiffer et al ., 2014 ).
Although cancer prevention is crucial, improving existing
J.P. Lynch, R. Fealy, D. Doyle, L. Black and J. Spink
range 3–10°C, while a proportionally lower V day is acquired if the daily mean temperature is within either of the ranges –4 to 3°C or 10 to 17°C:
Indices of thermal time and GAI development used in the winter wheat yield potential model
Periods of development
Thermal time (°C days)
Sowing to GS30
GS61–GS69 Allocated thermal time for the GS61–GS69 phase is an estimation of the duration of constant maximum GAI, as opposed to
Karolina Szewczyk, Urszula Lewandowska, Katarzyna Owczarek, Dorota Sosnowska, Sylwia Gorlach, Maria Koziołkiewicz, Zbigniew Hrabec and Elżbieta Hrabec
. Cancer, 2001, 91, 822-832.
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14. Gorlach S., Wagner W., Podsedek A., Sosnowska D., Dastych J., Koziołkiewicz M., Polyphenols
Milan Vach, Lukáš Hlisnikovský and Miloslav Javůrek
During the years 2012‒2016 at the site threatened by erosion, the effect of different intensity and depth of soil tillage on the progression of erosion were evaluated on the plots with silage maize. Three different tillage methods were compared and evaluated - conventional tillage, including ploughing (CT), no-tillage using mulch and direct drilling (NT), and minimum tillage treatment with a lower depth of soil cultivation and organic matter incorporation (MT). Water and soil runoff on all of the experimental plots were measured during erosion events. Besides an analysis of naturally occurring rainfall causing erosions, we also conducted the test of soil infiltration abilities with a rain simulator after silage maize harvest. The effect of the tillage on aboveground biomass yield and the input costs was also analyzed. The results showed that NT and MT can significantly reduce water and soil runoff comparing CT. The highest yields were recorded in MT, while the lowest were in CT. Total input costs were higher in the case of NT and MT, but the share of mechanized work was lower for these technologies. Our results showed that NT and MT technologies, as a part of silage maize with a higher plant density stand establishment, should be a useable erosion control measure in areas vulnerable to erosion.