Whole-grain rye intake has been suggested to have anti-cancer effect, including changes in serum hormones and reduced prostate specific antigen (PSA) in animals and humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of high intake of whole-grain rye bread on prostate cancer progression as assessed by PSA concentration in men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Fifteen men with prostate cancer who did not receive prior therapy were randomised and given a daily supplement of 250 g refined wheat bread for two weeks and, afterwards, 250 g whole-grain rye bread for six weeks. Blood samples were taken from fasting men at baseline and after two and six weeks to measure the PSA and sex hormones. The dietary intake was: energy intake 3452 kcal; protein intake 166 g, carbohydrate intake 334 g, fat 149 g, saturated fat intake 52 g, and fibre intake 40 g. Plasma total PSA, free PSE, testosterone concentrations and free androgen index tended to be higher after refined white bread treatment and lower after whole-grain rye treatment. However, none of the differences were statistically significant. There were no significant changes in sex hormone binding globulin, luteinising hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone. In this intervention trial, whole-grain rye consumption did not result in significant changes in PSA and sex hormones, which may be related to high fat intake. Further prospective trials are indicated to evaluate the potential of whole-grain rye bread, taking into account other factors.
Jūlija Zepa, Inita Buliņa, Vladimirs Lavrentjevs, Ilze Vīnkalna, Liene Ņikitina-Zaķe, Daina Andersone and Aivars Lejnieks
delays spinal radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis: Observation Study of the Korean Spondyloarthropathy Registry. Rheumatology, 53 , 1404–1408.
Maas, P., Arends, S., van der Veer, E., Wink, F., Efde, M., Bootsma, H., Brouwer, E., Spoorenberg, A. (2016). Obesity is common in axial spondyloarthritis and is associated with poor clinical outcome. J. Rheumatol., 43 (2), 383–387.
Machado, P., Landewé, R., Lie, E., Kvien, T. K., Braun, J., Baker, D., van der Heijde, D. (2011). Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS): Defining cut
Monta Madelāne, Angelika Krūmiņa, Raimonds Sīmanis, Ģirts Šķenders, Andrejs Ivanovs, Gunta Stūre and Ludmila Vīksna
with marked immune and hemodynamic derangement. Hepatology , 37 (1), 208–217.
Balagopal, A., Phil, F. H., Astemborski, J., Block, T. M., Mehta, A., Long, R., Kirk, G. D., Mehta, S. H., Cox, A. L., Thomas, D. L., Ray, S. C. (2008). Human immunodeficiency virus-related microbial translocation and progression of hepatitis C. Gastroenterology , 135 (1), 226–233.
Balagopal, A., Gama, L., Franco, V., Russell, J. N., Quinn, J., Higgins, Y., Smeaton, L. M., Clements, J. E., Thomas, D. L., Gupta, A. (2012). Detection of microbial translocation in HIV and SIV
Kristīne Baumane, Renāte Ranka and Guna Laganovska
Anonymous (2017). Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma. 4th edn. ISBN: 978-88-98320-05-9. Available at: http://www.eugs.org/eng/EGS_guidelines.asp (accessed 22 February 2017).
Aydin, A., Wollstein, G., Price, L. L., Fujimoto, J. G., Schuman, J. S. (2003). Optical coherence tomography assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes after glaucoma surgery. Ophthalmology, 110, 1506-1511.
Bengtsson, B., Heijl, A. (2008). A visual field index for calculation of glaucoma rate of progression
Anda Kadiša, Zaiga Nora-Krūkle, Svetlana Kozireva, Simons Svirskis, Pēteris Studers, Valērija Groma, Aivars Lejnieks and Modra Murovska
arthritis. Nature, 423, 356-361.
González-Alvaro, I., Ortiz, A. M., Domínguez-Jiménez, C., Aragón-Bodi, A., Díaz Sánchez, B., Sánchez-Madrid, F. (2009). Inhibition of tumour necrosis factor and IL-17 production by leflunomide involves the JAK/STAT pathway. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 68 (10), 1644-1650.
Gottenberg, J. E., Dayer, J. M., Lukas, C., Ducot, B., Chiocchia, G., Cantagrel, A., Saraux, A., Roux-Lombard, P., Mariette, X. (2012). Serum IL-6 and IL-21 are associated with markers of B cell activation and structural progression in early
Viktorija Kuzema, Aivars Pētersons, Harijs Čerņevskis and Aivars Lejnieks
. Kidney Dis. , 34 , 795-808.
Rossert, J. A., McClellan, W. M., Roger, S, D, Verbeelen, D. L., Hörl, W. H. (2002). Contribution of anaemia to progression of renal disease; a debate. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. , 17 (1), 60-66.
Valderrábano, F., Hörl, W. H., Macdougall, I. C., Rosset, J., Rutkowski, B., Wauters, J. P. (2003). Pre-dialysis survey on anaemia management. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. , 1 , 89-100.
Vlagopoulos, P. T., Tighiouart, H., Weiner, D. E., Griffith, J., Pettitt, D., Salem
Guna Havensone, Laila Meija, Līga Balode, Ieviņa Stūrīte and Aivars Lejnieks
Daily intake of cereal fibre reduces incidence and progression of metabolic diseases. Very little is known on how triticale (Triticosecale) influences human health and its role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate glycaemic and insulin response in blood after consuming whole grain triticale cereal flakes. A group of twelve healthy, young people, aged from 18 to 30 years participated in the test. The participants in fasted state were given equivalent carbohydrate amounts of triticale cereal and reference food (glucose solution). Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured according to Brouns et al. (2005). Whole grain triticale cereal flakes elicited lower metabolic responses compared to glucose solution. Intake of the triticale cereal flakes induced significantly lower incremental insulin area (iAUC 0–120 min) 1672.9 ± 619.85 than glucose solution 2646.65 ± 1260.56 and showed lower insulinemic indices (II) 68 ± 19.0 (p < 0.05). A low insulin incremental peak was associated with less severe late post-prandial hypoglycaemia. Our study showed that triticale cereal product caused low acute insulinemic response and improved glycaemic profiles, similarly to the rye products studied before. The results also suggested that the triticale cereal flakes could have beneficial appetite regulating properties. Thus, triticale flakes would be a wonderful option for functional breakfast cereal mixtures that might influence course of metabolic syndrome prevention
Jurijs Nazarovs, Regīna Kleina and Sandra Lejniece
CD56, p53, and Cyclin D1 detection in plasma cells (PC) can help to predict prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM). Clinical and biochemical prognostic parameters were analysed in a group of 122 patients with primary diagnosed MM in the period 2011–2015. Bone marrow biopsies were analysed with Cyclin D1, p53, CD56 antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Graph Pad Prism 5. Lack of CD56 expression and p53-positivity were significantly correlated with a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR), low platelet count and haemoglobin level, as well as with high serum creatinine levels. Patients with Cyclin D1 expression in PC had a significantly higher serum calcium level and more common osteolytic lesion in bones. CD56-negative as well as p53, Cyclin D1-positive groups had advanced Salmon–Durie MM stages by and significantly higher ß2-microglobulin. Expression of p53, Cyclin D1 and lack of CD56 antigen in PC are negative predictive factors in cases of MM, as these patients were diagnosed as having late Salmon–Durie stage and higher ß2-microglobulin level. Expression of p53 and lack of CD56 antigen in PC is associated with an increased creatinine level in blood and decreased GFR; therefore, these are criteria for chronic renal failure progression and poorer prognosis of MM.
Histogenesis and organogenesis in mammals normally transpires in a hypoxic environment. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the thickness of placental barrier and with the level of tissue vascularity. Since the epidermis is avascular, its development fully depends on dermal blood vessels. Despite the large number of studies focusing on uteroplacental circulation and embryogenesis, it is clear that the current knowledge of how placental changes in pregnancy contribute to skin development is incomplete. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between structural changes in the placental barrier and development of the integumentary system, with special reference to dermal angiogenesis. The study included specimens of six embryos and ten foetuses from 5 to 24 developmental weeks, and 21 specimens of placental tissue 6–40 weeks gestational age. The panel of antibodies used was S- 100, SMA, CD31, CD34, AE1/AE3 (PCKT), CKRT7, CD 56 and hCG. During the first trimester, maternal blood flow to the placenta appears to be initially restricted by trophoblast plugs. Natural killer cells appear in great abundance in subendothelium of decidual blood vessels, potentially stimulating extensive angiogenesis. By the end of the first trimester, new capillary beds organise to supply the developing epidermal derivatives. During the second trimester, the placental barrier becomes progressively thinner, and uteroplacental circulation is established due to dissolution of endovascular trophoblast plugs. Progression of the formation of skin appendages, hypodermal adipose tissue, demarcation of papillary and reticular dermis, and keratinisation of interfollicular epidermis in the second trimester strongly accompanies the dermal angiogenesis and placental maturation.