public urban spaces was furthermore a cornerstone of the emerging discipline. However, later into the profession’s evolution process urban design also at times became associated with developer-led processes and urban growth regimes. In the context of this paper the notion of urban design that is considered to be relevant to a grounding of mobilities design is inspired by critical and participatory positions such as ‘Everyday Urbanism’ ( Chase, Crawford & Kaliski 1999 ), and the different examples of urban design working on public space design ( Gehl 2010 ; Jacobs 1961
Case studies of the Paris Rive Gauche and the New Centre of Lodz
Monika Maria Cysek-Pawlak
reason to stop for a while en route to their destination (e.g. cafes or other local services). The problem is intended to be solved by diversifying the NCL area, particularly with respect to the ages and professions of its users. One of the tools to be used to this end is the Area Regeneration Programme. It is expected that after all the projects are completed and the Fabryczna Railway Station has all the infrastructure it needs to provide a wider range of transportation services, the NCL area will become more coherent and its spaces will attract more users.
larger vehicles needed, which could be used for luggage or other cargo. Due to the vehicle operators’ pursuit of cost optimisation, one could expect there to be limitations of access to vehicles during rush hours.
The user of a vehicle will be free of service and cleaning activities. It will bring a large scale saving of the user’s time in the social dimension and also some new professions, but this last trend will probably not be sufficiently strong to replace the loss of employment for drivers. It also will allow some dimensions of the technical activities
development. For each of the researchers into these professions, the city is a living, changeable and changing organism, both in time and in space. It seems that a good metaphor for the process of continuous transformations of the city is to give it the name of palimpsest . One can say that the palimpsest city sets the values and contributions of our time among the monuments of the past ( Kroessler 2015 ). Historic districts of cities, the history of which is counted in hundreds of years, grew on the remains of urban matter, on the ruins of demolished buildings, planted
the research conducted
In order to expand the scope of data for conclusions, the findings of the surveys conducted among 600 residents of the outer zone of the Upper Silesia conurbation in 2012 and
Nikola V. Dimitrov, Blagoja Markoski, Ivan Radevski and Vladimir Zlatanoski
supported by a document from 1829, in which it states that the tradesman Anastas Tsalis from Bitola traded “on land and sea with Western Europe, Persia and India“ ( Turkish documents on Macedonian history 1958 : 53-56).
In 1862, artisanal products from Bitola were present at the International Exhibition in London. They were the result of the hard work of 2,065 shops, with about 140 types of different crafts and professions and over 70 esnaf organizations ( Konstantinov 1961 : 103-106). In 1876, the official Turkish records listed 1650 shops, 150 magazas (emporiums