Standard labor market models predict that the likelihood of employment increases, hours worked increase, and individuals transition from less-skilled and temporary jobs to more skilled and more stable employment as they age. I examine the association between age and transactional sex work using national household surveys from Zambia, one of the few settings with general population surveys asking women about transactional sex and a relatively high documented prevalence of employment in transactional sex. My results indicate that the likelihood of employment in transactional sex sharply falls with age. Increased employment opportunities outside of transactional sex do not appear to explain the transactional sex employment-age profile and marital status appears to explain only a portion of it. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that clients prefer younger transactional sex workers and suggest that policymakers implement interventions designed to reduce client demand for younger females.
professions where women often suffer negative productivity signals arising from gender stereotypes, there is hardly any comparable stigma in service-related professions. In sum, this might trigger a lower overedcuation risk of female graduates in the field of services.
The study at hand aims to verify the linkage between job-specificity and overeducation in a consistent methodological and data framework. In particular, we hypothesize that those study programs that train graduates for a more clearly defined range of occupations are associated with a lower overeducation
. Specifically, the key variables employed are occupation, citizenship status of immediate relatives, country of birth, receipt of public benefits, and age at entry. Workers with certain occupations that require licensing or background checks, such as legal professions, police and fire, some medical professions, are assumed to be authorized, as well as individuals in government or in the military. Anecdotal evidence shows that there are some unauthorized workers in the military. Nevertheless, the size of this group is very small. Clearly, while occupation is only useful for