Krisztina Lichtenberger-Majzikné and Andrea Fischer
The role of feedback is unquestionably crucial in a teachers’ profession. In our context of teacher education giving effective feedback is also an essential skill and tool of pedagogical evaluation for developmental purposes when educating university students and future teachers. Effective feedback fosters development, gives guidance, opens windows and new opportunities. In addition, the descriptive nature of feedback has a lot more potentials and positive effect on the teacher-student relationship than traditional assessment. In addition, giving and receiving feedback can be considered the starting point of reflection. Only by having looked into ‘the mirror’ first can one face reality, review and analyse an experience and learn from it. As a result, teaching effective feedback skills through experiential learning is a very important element in reflective teacher education. Taking all the above into consideration, a lot of emphasis is put on teaching effective feedback skills at our Centre for Teacher Education of Károli Gáspár University. Moreover, we aim at changing our students’ perspectives in assessment practice through creating a more positive feedback culture. Giving and receiving feedback effectively can only be learnt by practice and reflecting on the experience. The ultimate aim is to develop our trainees’ reflective competence which serves as a basis for their continuous professional development. Our paper first aims at interpreting feedback from a pedagogical point of view and presenting our best practice in the context of developing trainees’ reflective competence. We shall also give details of everyday practice: how it is incorporated into the pedagogy, psychology and methodology seminars in preservice training. Finally, we shall discuss how and why developing feedback skills is also incorporated into our programme of school placement and mentor training.
The history of the development of mankind is filled with examples which confirm that not everything has failed when everything has failed (R. P. Nogo). And actually, in every sphere of social life we can find people, who in the given temporal and social circumstances, have brought about a kind of rebirth and have helped in the awakening of new dreams and new desires to move forward. These individuals, whose souls have borne all the wounds of their people (and the profession they once claimed as their own), have inspired hope and a new energy (both) to those who had already given up and abandoned themselves to a quiet self-destruction.
These individuals, beacons of light of a particular time, with their words and deeds were an example of those who would not acquiesce to the existing order, but did not know how to move on. These beacons of light, raised high by Love, went forward and through their work mapped out the roads of further development and progress.
One such man, who has shed his light and lit up our physical education, is certainly Milivoje Matić.
Nenad Živanović, Petar Pavlović, Veroljub Stanković, Zoran Milošević, Nebojša Ranđelović and Kristina Pavlović-Babić
The end of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century are characterized by a technological development which could be described as having revolutionary speed. If we were to look back on the revolutionary events during the 17th and 18th century, in the domain of great scientific changes, changes in industry, agriculture, economy, the organization of social relations (democracy and socialism), we could say that we are witnesses to this sixth technological revolution.
All these civilizational leaps forward have conditioned, quite expectedly, big changes in our profession. This has been reflected in the goals which have been imposed by social changes initiated by numerous revolutionary changes. Even though man and his need for physical exercise, as the nourishing food necessary for his being, have remained the same, the circumstances which have imposed different living conditions have required changes in our profession. Naturally, this was reflected in our science as well (which we refer to by different names today).
The time we live in, caught up in this new sixth technological revolution, requires a different approach to man and his personality. Now, the question is not only how to “drag” him out of a sedentary culture, but also how to fight the increasingly present physical and intellectual inactivity. Through perfectly guided marketing activities which have been made possible by the implementation of new technological aids, man has been drawn into the hedonistic waters of his own inactivity. And unfortunately, he cannot free himself from this skillfully set trap. That is why physical culture and science must be included in finding a means of helping man find his way out of this hedonistic labyrinth and return to his roots.
Nenad Zivanovic, Petar D. Pavlovic and Kristina M. Pantelic Babic
Serbian nation, especially from the time it “opened its orthodox eyes”, had famous people who wrote out its history. One of them, who along with others embed his whole life in prosperity of Serbian people, was Vasa Pelagić.
Born in troubled times of 19th century, he upgraded his high school and seminary knowledge abroad. But, the same as all those before and after him, he came back to Serbian nation, and he shared all of his gained knowledge with his people. In Moscow, where he spent two years, he attended lectures from: Russian literature, history, medicine and political economy. All this he implemented in his (not only) written work.
Educator, humanist, visionary, writer, and with one word – man who feels the pain of all Serbian wounds, Vasa Pelagić addressed significant attention also to our profession. With his work and care for proper development of young people (and by that not only physical development), he set the basis for its further growth. As equally useful he recommended both natural national gymnastics (work in garden, field), as also artificial gymnastics (different kind of physical exercise), and always asserted that gymnastics must be first among school subjects.
His ideas, which we can preceive primarily in theories of biocentrism and ethnocentrism, process a kind of his theoanthropocentric signet. By this signet he highlighted the fact that every human is a personality – one, unique and unrepeatable.
The 80th anniversary of the birth of dr Milivoje Matić is a trigger for a reassessment of his contribution to physical culture. By individually analysing Matić’s contributions in each of his works between 1961 and 1998, we come to the conclusion that in some of his publications exist sparks of “philosophical fragments”, which are necessary for comprehending the author’s belief that Matić has made it possible to discuss a possibility of a philosophical aspect and a constitution of the philosophy of physical culture in our country. M. Matić gives pointers which signify an event which would be prognostic on a permanent progress in our profession, in the context of education as a whole, domestically and abroad.
In this discussion, the topic of Matić’s contribution to the analysis of physical education in the philosophy of physical culture, and in the context of the sign of direction in the domestic education reform, the domestic physical education reform should be observed and analysed from the aspect of transversal connections which repeatedly link deliberation of the theory and practice of physical education.
Sport is a very dynamic social phenomenon that has developed rapidly especially after the Second World War. Studying the history of sport and its present may help determine the tendencies of modern sport and predict how sport will look in the future. This very significant issue has not been addressed extensively in the professional literature. Determining the tendencies of sport development represents the basis of the preparation of young athletes - future successful seniors, but also the basis of the organization of sport within society, the improvement of the system of athletes’ preparation and competition.
The main modern sport tendencies include the following: sport is becoming more important in society; sports information is becoming more extensive and easily accessible; the number of scientific papers on sports has increased; new sports branches are constantly emerging; the number of sports branches included in the Olympic Games is increasing; the volume of training work and competition activities is increasing; general preparation has been reduced in seniors’ training and used as an active rest; the orientation towards multi-year planning of preparation and competition has been more emphasized; the harmonization of training and competition activities has been searched for; non-traditional means of preparation have been increasingly used; the model characteristics of athletes, training stages and competition activities are a landmark in the selection of athletes and their preparation; the methodology of motor skills learning has been improved; the selection of athletes is getting better; the control of sports activities has become better; modern technologies have been increasingly applied in sports; the work in sports has been increasingly team-based, and a larger number of specialists from different professions have been engaged in a team; the sports system has been improved.
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