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International Survey in Eight Countries about Teachers and Teaching Profession
An international team of experts from Belgium, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey and the USA employed a questionnaire to identify the deontology of teachers from infant to secondary school in eight countries. The survey was implemented between 2004 and 2007. The socio-cultural concept of Verstehen (understanding) as described in the work of Max Weber, points to the clear significance of being a teacher at this time in history. Qualitative and quantitative analysis allow for an understanding that the teacher is exactly that, in any context. The ideal typology of the teacher is the result of training at a university level and working in the school system. Phenomenal differentiations characterise the various situations and broaden the perspective of the study, including an identification of the shared features of the profession. The strong, common core is the responsibility towards fellow teachers balanced out by a weak, yet common note of regret regarding the scant social prestige of being a teacher. There seems to be a lack of communication between the personal and social aspects involved in shaping the professional identity. The social image of teachers weighs heavily on their professional status due to the inevitable political implications it results in and the considerable effect on institutional behaviour. Teachers listen, but they are not heard; teachers are committed, but remain unrecognised; teachers evaluate, but are evaluated in turn. The issue of the social importance of the profession of teachers in our societies emerges as a crucial point in the perspective of educating young generations.
The shaping of the Lutheran teaching profession and Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries
The article deals with changes in the status of teachers and the shaping of Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Trenčín, Liptov and Orava districts of the superintendency. It describes the formation of the families and their background.
In the presented article, we deal with teachers’ personality and their tasks in vocational education. Based on the opinions of professionals, we characterized teachers and the factors influencing the creation process of their personality. Teachers can be characterised based on their job positions in schools, e.g. a class teacher, the school counsellor, the director, there are plenty of them in every school. Teachers’ personality is being formed throughout their teaching practice by the experience they gain. They get the basics during their teacher training when they are getting prepared for the teaching profession. We focused our attention on the issues of teachers’ professional identity. In this context, we were interested in the students of Dubnica Institute of Technology in Dubnica nad Váhom and in their perception of their studies. Our partial goal was to analyse students’ motivation to take part in teacher training which we deal with in our paper.
Krisztina Lichtenberger-Majzikné and Andrea Fischer
The role of feedback is unquestionably crucial in a teachers’ profession. In our context of teacher education giving effective feedback is also an essential skill and tool of pedagogical evaluation for developmental purposes when educating university students and future teachers. Effective feedback fosters development, gives guidance, opens windows and new opportunities. In addition, the descriptive nature of feedback has a lot more potentials and positive effect on the teacher-student relationship than traditional assessment. In addition, giving and receiving feedback can be considered the starting point of reflection. Only by having looked into ‘the mirror’ first can one face reality, review and analyse an experience and learn from it. As a result, teaching effective feedback skills through experiential learning is a very important element in reflective teacher education. Taking all the above into consideration, a lot of emphasis is put on teaching effective feedback skills at our Centre for Teacher Education of Károli Gáspár University. Moreover, we aim at changing our students’ perspectives in assessment practice through creating a more positive feedback culture. Giving and receiving feedback effectively can only be learnt by practice and reflecting on the experience. The ultimate aim is to develop our trainees’ reflective competence which serves as a basis for their continuous professional development. Our paper first aims at interpreting feedback from a pedagogical point of view and presenting our best practice in the context of developing trainees’ reflective competence. We shall also give details of everyday practice: how it is incorporated into the pedagogy, psychology and methodology seminars in preservice training. Finally, we shall discuss how and why developing feedback skills is also incorporated into our programme of school placement and mentor training.
The diversity of international relations in the globalized world has influenced the role of a translator that is becoming more and more important. Translators’ training institutions today are to work out and to implement the best teaching methodology taking into consideration the new challenges of modern multinational and multicultural society. The thorough research of the experience in training translators and interpreters in the USA may help to find out new perspective methodological approaches to teaching and learning. This article reviews the variety of translator training programmes in Ukraine and in the USA and presents the analysis of the innovative teaching approaches that are currently popular in the education community. There exist different kinds of translators’ training degree programmes: short and long, full-time and part-time in Ukraine and in the USA. American universities and colleges provide not only academic programmes but also specific certificate programmes in translation and interpretation. The peculiarity of Ukrainian translators’ training programmes is that all these programmes are fully integrated into the university system. The approaches applied in the process of translators’ training in the American system of education are mostly new and oriented on the professional skills building. The following teaching approaches are currently used in the translators’ training process: profession-based, learner-centred, social constructivist and interdisciplinary. A social constructivist approach is more likely to be applied to translators’ training process in Ukraine under the modern conditions.
It has been defined that the problem of labor socialization of young specialists is a problem of great interest and practical importance for modern pedagogical science. Current issues of professional socialization of young people have been considered. Special attention has been paid to orphans - inmates of institutions of social care in China. It has been determined that labor education throughout the history was considered to play the primary role among all kinds of educational work with young people both in classical and modern China. The experience of China as to the problem mentioned has been characterized. Special attention has been paid to the issues which play a practical role both in motivating orphans to professional and labor search (holding “weeks of professions”, participation in daily work as to maintaining the orphanage, caring for youngsters and olds, work in gardens and workshops located on the territory of orphanage etc.) and the society to taking care of orphans (patronage and guarding from factories and plants, granting jobs’ quotas for orphanages’ graduates, making production areas on the territories of the orphanages etc.). It has been found out that adequate labor and professional socialization of orphans in China is considered to be an important part of public campaigns aimed at making staff reserve for different plants and factories (especially with hard or harmful working conditions), law enforcement agencies and agriculture. It has been defined that appropriate level of labor and professional socialization of orphans in China is seen by the State as an essential condition of their full integration into modern Chinese society.