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Work/non-work experiences of international physicians in Norway and Sweden
Maja Povrzanović Frykman, Eugene Guribye, Knut Hidle and Katarina Mozetič
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Nieminen, S 2011, Kuulumisen politiikkaa: maahanmuuttajasairaanhoitajat, ammattikuntaan sisäänpääsy ja toimijuuden ehdot, [Politics of Inclusion: immigrant nurses, entrance into profession and agency in the making.], Academic dissertation, School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere.
Nordberg, C 2016, ‘Outsourcing equality: migrant care worker imaginary
The presentation of the professions from the older generation to elementary school pupils is one of the segments of intergenerational learning and intergenerational cooperation. Young people meet a person who actually did a particular occupation or profession. The older generation explains to the young generation what is needed to learn for a particular profession, and the young generation have the opportunity to test, or at least monitor the work they would do in the profession. The aim of our survey was to confirm that intergenerational learning is one of the cornerstones of quality aging. The data was collected with the survey questionnaire, which 200 representatives of older generation aged 65 and more have answered and was then quantitatively analyzed using a quantitative methodology. The results of the research confirmed that intergenerational cooperation through intergenerational learning, which involves the presentation of a profession of older generation to younger generation, affects the quality of life in the third life period. We can conclude that within intergenerational learning older generation gets the opportunity to transfer their knowledge, experience and share it with young generation, which leads to a higher quality of life even in the third stage of life. The younger generation is able to acquire concrete and useful information about professions first hand and in addition learn about aging and social tolerance.
The difficulties immigrant doctors encounter can be considered as an impediment to accessing skilful work, and are thus an indication of ethnic bias. Therefore the term “devaluation of human capital” is here used to analyze one case where schooling and/or licensure from other countries are less recognized. This study focuses on the case of immigrant doctors in Sweden and their difficulties in achieving similar status positions there as their Swedish counterparts. The study is based on a qualitative study of the Swedish medical journal over time and the aim was to broaden the understanding about how the skills of immigrant doctors are described in this context. Results show that, immigrant doctors in Sweden are constructed as assets when their language-skills are helpful in relation with immigrant patients. In this case the human capital of immigrant doctors is not devaluated, but often they are also considered as a threat to the ‘trustworthiness’ of the profession of doctors. Cultural authorization is a concept presented in this article that can help describing a profession’s way of re-evaluating immigrant professionals.
This paper tries to identify the main factors influencing the decisions related to occupational choices of rural youth from Cluj County, Romania, thus contributing to a better understanding of the problems and opportunities of Romanian rural communities. In order to achieve this, the results of two surveys are compared: the first one was carried out in 2007 and the second in 2011. The two surveys adopted the same methodology, thus allowing us to test the stability of the outcomes over a period of four years and highlight the main changes occurring in that period. In 2011 information was collected also regarding the current situation of young people belonging to the first generation, thus the cross-sectional analysis has been completed with a longitudinal analysis. Results show that the educational choices of rural youth from Cluj County were not essentially modified in the period 2007-2011, but there is a growing uncertainty regarding their future profession. Most of them want to work in the services sector, the preference for agriculture remaining low and there is a clear and persistent gender division among chosen professions. The main factors identified as having an influence on continuing education are: gender (more girls opting for continuing education than boys), school results and parents’ attitude towards education. Based on the conclusions of the analysis, some policy implications are also discussed.
Social work is a sharing and caring profession based on scientific methods. This problem solving profession makes people self-reliant and self-dependent when he/she is in any sorts of crises. Thus, it differs from relief work, social services or social welfare delivered during emergence crises. This paper examined the application of professional social work as relief work, which did not bring any change among the beneficiaries; rather it set their mind as opportunist. For this purpose, the programme sponsored by the government of India and implemented by nongovernmental organizations for rehabilitation of the street children (i.e., pavements and slums dwellers, children of sex workers, and so forth) of Metro cities like Kolkata had priority. This evaluative study assessed the progress and changes among 500 street children who were the beneficiaries for 10 years of the programme, selected according to their parental residents/occupation through stratified sampling. Interviews, case studies and group interaction were used to collect data on various aspects, i.e. personal background, education, and occupation of these children. It revealed that after almost 10 years of services, the problem of children was static. Firstly, service delivery system was as relief work. The methods of social work were not implied while the professionals were in implementation. On the other hand, the scope of monitoring and evaluation of the programme by government was suspended due to several reasons. Definitely, the politicalization in human development would be restricted. The problems of suffering would be root out and it should not be a continued process.
European labour markets have become increasingly accessible to foreign workers because of increased global migration and the implementation of international labour mobility agreements. Yet, skilled immigrants have lower occupational attainment. The regulated occupations, however, are more inclusive of immigrants than unregulated occupations. This article investigates immigrants’ likelihood of gaining access to licensed occupations in Norway, as well as how this varies between regions of origin and between immigrants with a foreign or domestic degree to determine whether employment outcomes are due to different impacts of regulatory frameworks. The empirical investigation uses administrative register data that cover the years 2003–2012. The results show that there are no significant differences between the immigrant groups with a domestic degree, while the results for immigrants with foreign degrees signal that without international agreements on mutual recognition of education credentials, those who are educated for a licensed profession are somewhat restricted in performing it.
The paper approaches the ‘ideology’ of Romanian post-communist journalism as identified in local news media organisations. We focus on the practical philosophy of journalism, emphasizing elements such as autonomy, truth, objectivity; and the relationship of journalists and news organisations with political actors. Special attention is given to the interplay between this practical philosophy and the political and economic constraints influencing news media organisations in Romania. We approach this topic using in-depth interviews with journalists and editors from news media organisations in three Romanian cities. We argue that two different ‘ideologies’ of journalism as a profession exist. These are complemented by a tendency toward reducing journalism to a simple occupation, linked to the politicization of media ownership in Romania and the widespread use of media organisations as vehicles for the free speech of their owners.
Gabriel Crumpei, Alina Gavriluț, Maricel Agop, Irina Crumpe, Lucian Negură and Ioana Grecu
From the theoretical discussions, transdisciplinarity starts to have practical consequences in the development of programs that include consortia of universities, bringing together a large variety of professionnals who set ambitious goals, such as the Human Genome Project in the past decade, and also the Human Brain Project for this decade. We intend to present an approach in the spirit of the new paradigms of knowledge in the Human Brain Project generous program started earlier this year in Europe. A possible transdisciplinary approach on brain functions and structure is to bring a valuable, significant and innovative, unconventional contribution to the theory of multi-scale topics of the HBP project. More precisely, we intend to develop the subproject Mathematical and Theoretical Foundations of Brain Research within the HBP project. Our approach aims at exploring brain function from the perspective of the theories which influenced the last decade researches in Physics and Mathematics, such as the fractal theory, chaos and the dynamics of the nonlinear systems, in order to formulate new theories regarding brain mechanisms. We bring together models and new theories based on a principled approach to nonlinear reality. We wish to develop a new paradigm for assessing brain function, the theory of complex systems, which requires a revolutionary attitude, by rethinking how brain works and it is biologically structured. By this approach, we intend to study not only the corpuscular, but also the wave part of the matter.