ANTKOWIAK, P. (2013): Polskie i europejskie standardy wykonywania wolnych zawodów [Polish and European Standards for Practicing of Liberal Professions]. In: Przegląd Politologiczny [Political Science Review], 18(1), pp. 129-142.
AUSTIN, J. L. (1961): A Plea for Excuses. In: J. O. Urmson & G. J. Warnock (eds.): Philosophical Papers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 123-152.
BITTNER, B. & STĘPIEŃ, J. (2000): Wprowadzenie do etyki zawodowej. Podręcznik [Introduction to Professional Ethics. Handbook
ongoing battle of an emerging profession.’ Target . 22 (2): 194–211.
Dam, H. and K.K. Zethsen. 2011. ‘The status of professional business translators on the Danish market: A comparative study of company, agency and freelance translators.’ Meta. The Translators’ Journal . 56 (4): 976–997.
Dam, H. and K.K. Zethsen. 2016. ‘I think it is a wonderful job. On the solidity of the translation profession.’ The Journal of Specialised Translation . 25: 174–187.
Evans, L. 1998. Teacher morale, job satisfaction and motivation . Thousand Oaks–London–New Delhi
The Act of 23 April 1964 Civil Code (Journal of Laws 2017, item 459) hereinafter as Civil Code.
The Act of 5 December 1996 concerning the Professions of General Practitioner and Dental Practitioner (uniform text Journal of Laws of 2017, item 125), hereinafter as Medical Profession Act.
Wnukiewicz-Kozłowska A. (2004). Eksperyment medyczny na organizmie ludzkim w prawie międzynarodowym i europejskim , Warszawa.
Zielińska E. (2008). Ustawa o zawodach lekarza i lekarza dentysty. Komentarz , Warszawa.
In accordance with the Bologna Declaration, modern languages and communication skills have a growing importance in all professions. With the prospect of Croatian membership of the EU and taking into consideration the conditions of the growing internationalization of law in general, knowledge of foreign languages represents an indispensable prerequisite for international com- munication within the legal profession. Thus, teaching foreign languages in the field of law, especially English and German, is necessary not only for the pro- fessional education of Croatian law students, but also for their mobility within the network of European universities. This paper presents a case-study of the current situation in teaching Legal English and Legal German in Croatian Law Schools. First, the status of foreign languages for specific purposes (FLSP) in the Higher Education System of the Republic of Croatia in general is analyzed. The main part of the paper is dedicated to teaching Legal English and / or Legal German as compulsory courses within the curricula of Croatian law faculties (status, syllabus design, teaching methods). Then some projects on teaching foreign languages to practicing lawyers will be presented. With the prospect of Croatian membership of the EU, specific education programmes for lawyer- linguists have been introduced by the Law Faculties of Zagreb and Osijek. These programmes, developed within the lifelong education project for lawyers, offer an opportunity for Croatian law students and young lawyers not only to im- prove their knowledge of Legal English and Legal German, but also to learn other languages of the EU, like French or Italian. These new programmes are the response of Croatian foreign language teachers to the current requirements of the European labour market and the challenges of the internationalization of the modern world.
Court interpreting in Croatia is a very unregulated field especially regarding the training and the skills that are to be acquired in order to pro- vide accurate translation at courts. One of the prerequisites according to the Regulations on Court Interpreters in Croatia is knowledge of the structure of judicial power, state government and legal terminology. Although the Regulations prescribe that the training should last no longer than two months, the organisations providing such training shorten this to three or four days. Taking into account all that has been said one realizes that in such short time a per- son cannot be properly qualified to practice as a court interpreter. According to the EU Directive on the right to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings member states should provide adequate training in order to ensure the quality of interpretation and to avoid that suspected or accused persons complain that the quality of interpretation was not good enough to secure the fairness of the proceeding, which according to Article 2 of the Directive they have the right to. Since Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013, it will have to change its Regulations on Court Interpreters in order to com- ply with this Directive. This paper will try to analyze the problems within the scope of court interpreter’s profession in Croatia both in civil and in criminal proceedings. Several examples will be suggested as the possible model for modifying court interpreting in Croatia. Since this profession is often underrated by the national courts, the paper will suggest ways to prevent such views and point out the importance of good court interpretation
The aim of the study presented in this article is to show correspondence analysis as a method useful in the diagnosis of coexistence of category variables in antecedents of innovativeness, with the positions of the respondents representing various medical professions in hospitals. Primary data obtained in the course of empirical research, carried out using a questionnaire study on a sample of 459 respondents representing 8 public hospitals in Poland, is used to this aim. To follow up on the achievements of the analysis, literature on the issue of innovativeness and its antecedents was also used. The results of the correspondence analysis allows one to confirm the thesis of the different opinions of doctors, nurses/midwives and managers regarding the level of significance of antecedents of innovativeness, where for doctors and managers in this context the most important is financial optimization, and for nurses the improvement of the quality of medical services. The results may provide an important clue to the chief executives of hospitals in the context of further changes and innovativeness necessary to achieve the desired efficiency of these organizations.
Aldona Dutkiewicz, Barbara Kołodziejczak, Piotr Leszczyński, Iwona Mokwa-Tarnowska, Paweł Topol, Barbara Kupczyk and Idzi Siatkowski
Textbooks have played the leading role in academic education for centuries and their form has evolved, adapting to the needs of students, teachers and technological possibilities. Advances in technology have caused educators to look for new sources of knowledge development, which students could use inside and outside the classroom. Today’s sophisticated learning tools range from virtual environments to interactive multimedia resources, which can be called e-textbooks. Different types of new educational materials that go beyond printed books are now used to support the academic curriculum, with the most interesting ones exemplified in this article to show their value in medical and life sciences education. Certain interesting attempts by Polish publishers at applying technology to support both self-paced and tutor-paced student learning in the medical profession and related areas are presented. The data was collected through a review of literature, discussions with e-learning specialists and medical students, as well as an analysis of examples of good practices. The article also discusses the results of a countrywide survey on the use of e-textbooks to enhance medical education. The research investigates the targeted academic staff’s attitudes towards the use of e-textbooks, the limitations of their implementation, and the character of e-resources currently used by Polish higher education medical institutions.
Russell, F., Locke, C. (1995). English Law and Language. Hemel Hempstead: Phoenix ELT.
Sherman, J. (2003). Using Authentic Video in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sierocka, H. (2014). Cultural dimensions of legal discourse. Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric. 38 (51). pp. 189-196. DOI: 10.2478/slgr-2014-0039
Siess, J.H. (2007). The Thirteen All-Time Best Movies about Attorneys and/or the Legal Profession. Retrieved March 27, 2015, from http://www.jhsiess.com/2007/01/25/thursday
, Referential and Functional. In: Bazerman, Ch. & Paradis, J. (eds.) Textual Dynamics of the Professions: historical and contemporary studies of writing in professional communities. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, pp. 336-357.
Giltrow, J. (2001). Meta-genre. In: Coe, Richard / Lingard, Lorelei / Teslenko, Tatiana (eds.): The rhetoric and ideology of genre: Strategies for stability and change. Hampton Press: Cresskill, NJ., pp. 187-206.
Hansen, G. (2008). The Speck in Your Brother’s Eye - the Beam in Your Own: Quality Management in